John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bioaccumulation of fullerene (C60) and corresponding catalase elevation in Lumbriculus variegatus

Fullerene (C60) with its unique physical properties and nanometer size has been mass produced for many applications in recent decades. The increased likelihood of direct fullerenes release into the environment has raised interest in understanding both environmental fate and corresponding biological effects of fullerenes to living organisms. Since few studies have emphasized fullerene uptake and resultant biochemical responses by living organisms, a toxicity screening test and a 28‐d bioaccumulation test for Lumbriculus variegatus were performed. No mortality was observed in the range of 0.05 to 11.33 mg C60 / kg dry sediment. A Biota‐sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of micron‐size fullerene agglomerates (µ‐C60) was 0.032 ± 0.008 at day 28 which is relatively low compared to pyrene (1.62 ± 0.22). Catalase (CAT) activity, an oxidative stress indicator, was elevated significantly on day 14 for L. variegatus exposed to µ‐C60 (p = 0.034). This peak CAT activity corresponded to the highest observed body residues from our study, 199 ± 80 µg C60/kg dry weight sediment. Additionally, smaller C60 agglomerate size increased bioaccumulation potential in L. variegatus. All results suggest that C60 has a lower bioaccumulation potential than pyrene but a higher potential to induce oxidative stress in L. variegatus. The relationship between C60 body residue and the increased CAT activity followed a linear regression. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC

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