John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bioaccumulation, toxicokinetics, and effects of copper from sediment spiked with aqueous Cu, nano‐CuO or micro‐CuO in the deposit‐feeding snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

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This study examined the relative importance of copper form (aqueous Cu and CuO particles of different sizes) added to sediment for bioaccumulation, toxicokinetics, and effects in the deposit feeder, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. In Experiment 1 the bioaccumulation of Cu (240 µg Cu/g dry wt sed) added as aqueous Cu (CuCl2), nano‐ (6 nm, 100 nm) or micro‐ (<5 µm) CuO particles in adult snails was measured. In Experiment 2 a more comprehensive analysis of the toxicokinetics of Cu (aqueous Cu, 6 nm, or 100 nm) was conducted. In Experiment 3 the effects of Cu form (aqueous Cu and 6 nm‐CuO) on juvenile growth and survival at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 µg Cu/g dry wt sed were assessed. Snails took up less of the 5 µm‐CuO particles than nano‐CuO or aqueous Cu. A substantial fraction of Cu taken up was associated with shell, and this was rapidly lost when snails were transferred to clean sediment. Net uptake rates from sediment amended with 6 nm‐CuO and aqueous Cu were significantly higher (around 40∼50%) than from sediment amended with 100 nm‐CuO. During two weeks of depuration, there were no significant differences in depuration rates (kd) among forms (aqueous Cu: kd = −0.12 wk−1; 6 nm‐CuO: kd = −0.22 wk−1; 100 nm‐CuO: kd = −0.20 wk−1). Average juvenile growth was reduced by 0.11 mm (41%) at measured exposure concentrations of 127.2 µg Cu/g dry wt sed for aqueous Cu and 71.9 µg Cu/g dry wt sed for 6 nm‐CuO compared to control, however, differences between forms were not statistically significant. Juvenile snails in the highest exposure concentrations (aqueous Cu and 6 nm‐CuO groups pooled) reduced their growth by 0.18 mm on average (67%) compared to the control group. Although we observed minor differences in toxicity among Cu forms, effects on juvenile snail growth occurred at bulk sediment concentrations that are lower than Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. Characterization of the CuO particles showed that particle size distributions of commercially prepared particles deviated substantially from the manufacturers specifications and highlighted the importance of fully characterizing particles prior to use in toxicity tests. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2013 SETAC

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