Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment‐bound PCBs to carp
Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The relative bioavailability of sediment‐bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 138, 153 and 180) from a local contaminated site was examined using an in vivo carp model. Surface sediment from the PCB contaminated site and spiked canola oil containing equivalent masses of PCBs were respectively incorporated in the “sediment‐dosed diets” and “oil‐dosed diets” at 3 dose levels resulting in 6 experimental diets. Juvenile carps (n = 90) were divided in 18 tanks (5 fish × 6 treatments × 3 tanks). Fish were fed the control diet during the adaptation period (15 days). Next, one fish was sampled in each tank and muscle tissues were combined in control groups. During the exposure period (15 days), the remaining fish were fed with 1 of the 6 experimental diets. At the end of the experiment, fish were sampled and muscle tissues were combined for each tank. PCBs were monitored in feed and fish muscle. For both the studied contaminated sediment and spiked canola oil, concentrations of PCB 138, 153 and 180 in muscle linearly increased with concentrations in food, with similar intercepts and slopes. In the present study, the sediment‐bound PCBs were as bioavailable as those spiked into canola oil and fed to carp in a standard diet. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
Donor-dependent extent of uranium reduction for bioremediation of contaminated sediment microcosms
Bioremediation of uranium was investigated in microcosm experiments containing contaminated sediments from Oak Ridge, Tennessee to explore the importance of electron donor selection for uranium reduction rate and extent. In these experiments, all of the electron donors, including ethanol, glucose, methanol, and methanol with added humic acids, stimulated the reduction and immobilization of aqueous uranium by the indigenous microbial community. Uranium loss from solution began after the completion of nitrate...
Monitored natural recovery of PCB-contaminated sediments at the Lake Hartwell Superfund site
A series of three articles describing a study evaluating the natural recovery of surface sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the Sangamo-Weston/Twelvemile Creek/Lake Hartwell Superfund Site in Pickens County, South Carolina.
Abundances, Depositional Fluxes, and Homologue Patterns of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Dated ...
Despite the recent efforts to investigate the distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, very little was known about the temporal change of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environmental ecosystem of China. In this study, three dated sediment cores collected from the Pearl River Delta of southern China were analyzed for a large suite of PCB congeners, from which the temporal profiles of PCB abundances, fluxes, and homologue patterns were constructe...
Field Measurement of PCBs at Contaminated Soil Site... (PDF)
siteLAB PCB soil analysis directly correlates to split samples from a Boston Edison utility pole transformer spill.
EPH Aromatics, Aliphatics & TPH-Waste Oil in Soil... (PDF)
Consultant directed a Vac-Truck to remove stream bed sediments contaminated with waste oil, using siteLAB Test Kits for rapid on-site measurements of TPH.
Ten Good Reasons To Build Dynamic Models
Over the last ten years computer technology and network modelling software have developed beyond all recognition, providing the necessary hardware and software tools to assist water distribution engineers in their design and planning work utilising fully dynamic all-mains models. However, many water supply companies still make important decisions based on static models that represent an arbitrary simplification of the network and probably contains incomplete and inaccurate demand information. The commercial...
Innovations in Site Characterization. Case Study: Dexsil L2000 PCB/Chloride Analyzer for Drum ...
Executive Summary This case study describes a field analytical method that was used to measure PCB surficial contamination in empty drums to be cleaned by a new process. Approximately 7,000 empty 55-gallon drums that previously contained PCB-contaminated material had accumulated at the Department of Energy (DOE)’s East Tennessee Technology Park in Oak Ridge, TN. Because disposal of these drums following regulator-approved methods would have been very costly, DOE requested permission from the Environmental...
Compilation of EU Dioxin Exposure and Health Data
Introduction There is considerable public, scientific and regulatory concern over the possible adverse health effects of chronic exposure to trace levels of persistent organic pollutants. The class of compounds made up of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), often collectively known as dioxins, has received widespread attention and attracted a great deal of research, following the accidental release of the most toxic of these (2,3,7,8 TCDD) at Seveso in 1976. Diox...
Oil Refineries Fail to Report Millions of Pounds of Harmful Emissions
Executive Summary This report summarizes the findings of an investigation by the minority staff of the House Government Reform Committee into fugitive emissions from oil refineries. The investigation was requested by Rep. Henry A. Waxman, the ranking member of the Committee on Government Reform. It finds that (1) oil refineries vastly underreport leaks from valves to federal and state regulators and that (2) these unreported fugitive emissions from oil refineries add millions of pounds of harmful pollutants to...
Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds
Sites where halogenated VOCs may be found include burn pits, chemical manufacturing plants or disposal areas, contaminated marine sediments, disposal wells and leach fields, electroplating/metal finishing shops, firefighting training areas, hangars/aircraft maintenance areas, landfills and burial pits, leaking collection and system sanitary lines, leaking storage tanks, radioactive/mixed waste disposal areas, oxidation ponds/lagoons, paint stripping and spray booth areas, pesticide/herbicide mixing areas, solvent...
All Waste is not created equal
If you live in a house, apartment or similar abode, you produce waste. Right? You probably can`t go a week without producing waste. All kinds of waste. Call it trash if you want. It`s still waste. And if you don`t live where recycling is mandatory or there is no outlet for your voluntary environmental tendencies, everything goes into the trash - bottles, cans, cardboard, plastics, bottle caps, paint cans, light bulbs, fluorescent lamps, camera and flashlight batteries, pesticide bottles, pressurized spray cans,...
How Do I Get That Oil Out of There?
It is a common question asked every day by people in all fields of industry. Machine shops, steel mills, industrial manufacturers, and many others are faced with the problem of removing oils from coolants and wastewater on an everyday basis. They are faced with high disposal and maintenance costs. Some manufacturers are charged extreme amounts to have their contaminated water treated properly by their local water treatment facility. Companies look for effective ways to remove the oil from their wastewater or...
Principles of Waste Avoidance and Utilization
The minimization of wastes requiring disposal is increasingly important as available disposal options become more and more constrained, and particularly as more substances enter everyday use which are not readily decomposed in the natural environment and which can present long term hazards. This note sets out some basic principles for waste minimization in industrial processes, where `minimization` is taken to include avoidance of the generation of wastes where practical and the productive utilization of any...
Introduction The utilization of fungal biodegradation involves the controlled usage of these specially cultivated fungi to treat contaminants. White Rot Fungus White rot fungus has been reported to degrade a wide variety of organopollutants because of its lignin-degrading or wood-rotting enzymes. Two different treatment configurations have been tested for white rot fungus, in situ and bioreactor. An aerobic system using moisturized air on wood chips is used in a reactor for biodegradation. A reactor was used...
Slurry Phase Biological Treatment
Slurry phase biological treatment involves the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. The excavated soil is first processed to physically separate stones and rubble. The soil is then mixed with water to a predetermined concentration dependent upon the concentration of the contaminants, the rate of biodegradation, and the physical nature of the soils. Some processes pre-wash the soil to concentrate the contaminants. Clean sand may then be discharged, leaving only contaminated fines and washwater...
Phosphate Pre-Treatment of Steel: Always Powder Coating
Always Powder Coating have replaced the conventional iron phosphate pre-treatment system with an organic process that operates at room temperature. The savings from reduced energy, labour and waste disposal costs amount to $60,000 per annum. Background Always Powder Coating (APC) operates a powder coating facility in Melbourne`s eastern suburbs and specialises in powder coating of metal chair frames, bike frames and other similar metal components. An important part of powder coating is the cleaning and pre-treatm...
Common Treatment Technologies for Fuels in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate
It may be necessary to know other subsurface information to remediate fuels in ground water. Treatability testing to characterize contaminant biodegradability and nutrient content may be needed for any biodegradation technology. A subsurface geologic characterization would be particularly important to characterize the migration of NAPLs. Recovery tests are usually necessary to design a product/ground water pumping scheme that will ensure that the nonaqueous fuel layer can be recovered and that contaminated ground...
Thermal Treatment Technologies
Hot gas decontamination: Hot gas decontamination is a technology still in the pilot-scale of development that can be used for decontamination of explosives-contaminated masonry or metallic structures. The method involves sealing and insulating the structures, heating with hot gas stream to 260 °C (500 °F) for a prescribed period of time, volatilizing the explosive contaminants, and destroying them in an afterburner. Operating conditions are site-specific. Contaminants are completely destroyed. Incineration:...
Natural Attenuation in Soils
Introduction Surface and subsurface soils have different characteristics in natural attenuation. Mobile contaminants in subsurface soils diffuse into soil vapor and aqueous phase and thus are relatively easily subject to natural subsurface processes that can attenuate these contaminants. Most high-molecular-weight (persistent) organic and many inorganic contaminants will be immobilized in the subsurface soil matrix. These persistent organic contaminants often are difficult to degrade and the inorganic metals are...
A Citizen`s Guide to Chemical Dehalogenation
What is chemical dehalogenation? Chemical dehalogenation is a chemical process to remove halogens (usually chlorine) from a chemical contaminant, rendering it less hazardous. Halogens are a class of chemical elements that include chlorine, bromine, iodine, and fluorine. Polychlorinated biphenyls are halogenated compounds that once were used in high voltage electrical transformers because they conducted heat well while being fire resistant and good electrical insulators. In addition, halogenated compounds are used...