John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bioconcentration of two basic pharmaceuticals, verapamil and clozapine, in fish


The present study examined the bioconcentration of 2 basic pharmaceuticals: verapamil (a calcium channel blocker) and clozapine (an antipsychotic compound) in 2 fresh water fishes, fathead minnow and channel catfish. In 4 separate bioconcentration factor (BCF) experiments (2 chemicals × 1 exposure concentration × 2 fishes), fathead minnow and channel catfish were exposed to 190 µg/L and 419 µg/L of verapamil (500 µg/L nominal) or 28.5 µg/L and 40 µg/L of clozapine (50 µg/L nominal), respectively. Bioconcentration factor experiments with fathead consisted of 28 d uptake and 14 d depuration, whereas tests conducted on catfish involved a minimized test design, with 7 d each of uptake and depuration. Fish (n = 4–5) were sampled during exposure and depuration to collect different tissues: muscle, liver, gills, kidneys, heart (verapamil tests only), brain (clozapine tests only), and blood plasma (catfish tests only). Verapamil and clozapine concentrations in various tissues of fathead and catfish were analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In general, higher accumulation rates of the test compounds were observed in tissues with higher perfusion rates. Accumulation was also high in tissues relevant to pharmacological targets in mammals (i.e. heart in verapamil test and brain) in the clozapine test. Tissue‐specific BCFs (wet weight basis) for verapamil and clozapine ranged from 0.7 to 75 and from 31 to 1226, respectively. Tissue‐specific concentration data were used to examine tissue–blood partition coefficients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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