Keywords: cellular responses, low doses, micronuclei, antioxidants, cytokines, occupational medicine, low radiation, biological responses, cell membranes, chromatin substance, lymphocyte micronucleus formation, adaptive response, intercellular communication
Biological responses in low-dose range
Out of the wealth of biological responses a few have been selected for discussion, namely, those which point to sensitive cellular reactions with possible consequences, or, those which might be promising in occupational medicine as indicators of a possible burden to persons, radiological or nuclear workers, and which might be used in the future as a routine laboratory technique in assessment of individual sensitivities. Accordingly, alterations of the two critical targets, the cell membrane and the chromatin substance with the end-point of lymphocyte micronucleus formation are presented. Effect and risk-modifying factors like adaptive response, intercellular communication, the antioxidant status, tumour necrosis factor alpha cytokine influences are mentioned and discussed. In the biological responses at low doses, the decisive roles of biological and health conditions are emphasised.