Bioremediation of chlorinated phenols with INTEROX® case study
Courtesy of Solvay
The mass balance enabed the evaluation of the individual contribution of the flushing and the biodegradation processes to the global remediation.
Initially, flushing was the main process of remediation. After the deveopment of in situ conditions favorab e for the aerobic biodegradation, the main process of contamination remova is bioremediation contributing for 71% to the global contaminant removal.
The injection in the aquifer of a diluted soution of NTEROX® Hydrogen Peroxide proved to be efficient to control the dissoved oxygen concentration and consequenty to stimuale the activity of the indigenous aerobic microbia popuation.
The remedial strategy developed during the pilot test has been scaed up to the entire contaminated area (lha, 79000m ).
Enhanced Bioremediation of High Contaminant Concentrations in Source Residual Area (PDF)
Although enhanced bioremediation has proven to be effective at many sites, typically it has been applied to relatively low contaminant concentrations and in relatively permeable media. The project site described herein is an application that potentially extends the practical limits of in situ bioremediation applications. An active eyewear manufacturing facility located in Western NY was found to be contaminated with 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA) with groundwater concentrations as high as 400-500 mg/l in the source...
Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds
Sites where halogenated VOCs may be found include burn pits, chemical manufacturing plants or disposal areas, contaminated marine sediments, disposal wells and leach fields, electroplating/metal finishing shops, firefighting training areas, hangars/aircraft maintenance areas, landfills and burial pits, leaking collection and system sanitary lines, leaking storage tanks, radioactive/mixed waste disposal areas, oxidation ponds/lagoons, paint stripping and spray booth areas, pesticide/herbicide mixing areas, solvent...
Elemental Chlorine-Free (ECF): Pollution Prevention for the Pulp and Paper Industry
Imagine being in charge of a chemical company. One day a fire breaks out, and an employee, designated as a first responder, is killed fighting the blaze. Then OSHA investigators discover that the man died primarily because both his training and his equipment were inadequate. This scenario is why CPL 2-2.59A should put anyone who runs a HAZMAT facility into a state of introspection. These employers need to ask themselves: `When was the last time that our Emergency Response Plan was brought up to date? Do our...
Bioremediation of an Oil Spill
Bioremediation is the method of choice to effectively clean up a small spill of hydrocarbons. In this case, five-hundred liters of BTEX has spilled from an above ground storage tank into a pasture that is located at the west edge of the Royal Roads University (RRU) grounds. The soil is classified as a Gleyed Eutric Brunisol based on recent laboratory analysis; it contains clay, but is fairly loose and porous for the upper meter, and then reaches an impermeable clay boundary (Burke, 1998). The dominant vegetation...
In Situ Physical/Chemical Treatment for Ground Water and Leachate
The main advantage of in situ treatments is that they allow ground water to be treated without being brought to the surface, resulting in significant cost savings. In situ processes, however, generally require longer time periods, and there is less certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the variability in aquifer characteristics and because the efficacy of the process is more difficult to verify. Physical/chemical treatment uses the physical properties of the contaminants or the contaminated...
Properties and Behavior of Nonhalogenated VOC`s
An important consideration when evaluating a remedy is whether the compound is nonhalogenated or halogenated. A nonhalogenated compound is one which does not have a halogen (e.g., fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine) attached to it. The vendor of the technology being evaluated must be informed whether the compounds to be treated are nonhalogenated or halogenated. In most instances, the vendor needs to know the specific compounds involved so that modifications to technology designs can be made, where appropriate...
Properties and Behavior of Halogenated VOCs
An important consideration when evaluating a remedy is whether the compound is halogenated or nonhalogenated. A halogenated compound is one onto which a halogen (e.g., fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine) has been attached. The nature of the halogen bond and the halogen itself can significantly affect performance of a technology or require more extensive treatment than for nonhalogenated compounds. As an example, consider bioremediation. Generally, halogenated compounds are less amenable to bioremediate than...
Properties and Behavior of Fuels
Fuel contaminants are generally nonhalogenated. Information presented for nonhalogenated VOCs and nonhalogenated SVOCs may also be appropriate for many of the fuel contaminants presented in this subsection. Contamination by fuel contaminants in the unsaturated zone exists in four phases: vapor in the pore spaces; sorbed to subsurface solids; dissolved in water; or as NAPL. The nature and extent of transport are determined by the interactions among contaminant transport properties (e.g., density, vapor pressure,...
Electrokinetics - Technology Overview
Electrokinetics separates and extracts contaminants from saturated or unsaturated soils, sludges and sediments, and groundwater. The goal of electrokinetic remediation is to effect the migration of subsurface contaminants in an imposed electric field via electroosmosis, electromigration and/or electrophoresis. These phenomena occur when the soil is electrically charged with a low voltage current. The fundamental configuration for all three processes involves the application of an electrical potential between...
Common Treatment Technologies for Fuels in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate
It may be necessary to know other subsurface information to remediate fuels in ground water. Treatability testing to characterize contaminant biodegradability and nutrient content may be needed for any biodegradation technology. A subsurface geologic characterization would be particularly important to characterize the migration of NAPLs. Recovery tests are usually necessary to design a product/ground water pumping scheme that will ensure that the nonaqueous fuel layer can be recovered and that contaminated ground...
In Situ Biological Treatment for Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate
The main advantage of in situ treatment is that it allows ground water to be treated without being brought to the surface, resulting in significant cost savings. In situ treatment, however, generally requires longer time periods, and there is less certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the variability in aquifer characteristics and because the efficacy of the process is more difficult to verify. Bioremediation techniques are destruction techniques directed toward stimulating the microorganisms to...
Common Treatment Technologies for Halogenated SVOCs in Soil, Sediment, and Sludge
Common treatment technologies for halogenated SVOCs in soil, sediment, and sludge include biodegradation, dehalogenation, incineration, and excavation with off-site disposal. All types of biodegradation, both in situ or ex situ, can be considered to remediate soils: in situ bioremediation, bioventing, composting, controlled solid phase, or landfarming. Slurry phase biological treatment is also applicable but is less widely used. Treatability studies should be conducted to evaluate design parameters, such as...
Common Treatment Train for Fuels
A treatment train is the combination of different treatment technologies. A system diagram of a common treatment train for fuels is illustrated below. The fuel contaminated soil is first treated using a soil washing process. Water is injected at the up stream side of the contaminated site. Surfactant or other additives may be added to enhance the soil washing effect. Contaminated water is pulled out through extraction wells installed at the down stream side for further treatment. An in situ bioremediation process...
Introduction Bioventing is a promising new technology that stimulates the natural in situ biodegradation of any aerobically degradable compounds in soil by providing oxygen to existing soil microorganisms. In contrast to soil vapor vacuum extraction, bioventing uses low air flow rates to provide only enough oxygen to sustain microbial activity. Oxygen is most commonly supplied through direct air injection into residual contamination in soil. In addition to degradation of adsorbed fuel residuals, volatile compounds...
Air Sparging - Technology Overview
Air sparging involves injecting a gas (usually air/oxygen) under pressure into the saturated zone to volatilize groundwater contaminants and to promote biodegradation in saturated and unsaturated soils by increasing subsurface oxygen concentrations. Vola tilized vapors migrate into the vadose zone where they are extracted via vacuum, generally by a soil vapor extraction system. The term biosparging is sometimes used interchangeably with air sparging to highlight the bioremediation aspect of the treatment process...