Biosolids increase soil aggregation and protection of soil carbon five years after application on a crested wheatgrass pasture
Biosolids application to rangelands and pastures recycles nutrients and organic matter back to soils. The effects of biosolids (20 and 60 dry Mg ha–1) and N+P fertilizer on soil aggregate stability, bulk density, aeration porosity, and total C and N of stable aggregates were evaluated 4 and 5 yr after surface application to a crested wheatgrass [Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.] pasture in the southern interior of British Columbia (BC). The experiment was established in 2001 in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The 60 Mg ha–1 biosolids treatment (Bio 60) had a greater aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD) and proportion of water-stable soil aggregates > 1 mm relative to the control and fertilizer treatments. Temporal variation in aggregate stability was attributed to seasonal variations in soil water content. Surface application of 60 Mg ha–1 of biosolids increased C concentrations within water-stable aggregates relative to the control from 29 to 104, 24 to 79, and 12 to 38 g kg–1 for the 2 to 6, 1 to 2, and 0.25 to 1 mm size fractions, respectively. The concentration of N within aggregates increased in similar proportions to C. Neither soil bulk density, nor aeration porosity were affected by biosolids application. Increased aggregation and the accumulation of soil C within aggregates following biosolids application creates a potential for better soil C storage, soil water retention, nutrient availability, and ultimately the overall health of semiarid perennial pastures.