Blast-Induced Liquefaction of an Alluvial Sand Deposit
A series of six different explosive charges ranging from 0.0045 to 9.06 kg were detonated at a depth of 3 m below a sand island in the South Platte River, northeast Colorado. Pore pressure, particle velocity, and residual pore pressure were measured at several locations. Liquefaction was induced in the dense, saturated, coarse sand at a depth of 3.0 m when peak compressive strain exceeded 0.01%, peak particle velocity exceeded 0.16 m/s, or at scaled distances less than 3 m/kg?. No residual pore pressure was induced at a peak compressive strain less than 0.002% at peak particle velocity less than 0.03 m/s, or at scaled distances greater than 16 m/k?.