Bord na Móna’s Drehid waste management facility - Case Study
Courtesy of Clarke Energy
The Irish Drehid Waste Management facility opened in 2008 to manage up to 360,000 tonnes of residual waste, including municipal, commercial and industrial waste. Bord na Móna has now taken its operations in this location one step further. The ‘Landfill Gas Utilisation Project’ was inaugurated in April 2014.
After the landfill was up and running, Bord na Móna started working on a ‘Landfill Gas Utilisation Project’ that would create renewable energy from the waste that was brought into the site. At the site over 6,000 tonnes of methane is burned and turned into carbon dioxide and water. If vented into the atmosphere methane is a 21 times more hazardous greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Using the methane to produce renewable energy thus has a positive impact on the environment.
Clarke Energy’s Irish operations have supplied 4 of GE’s containerised Jenbacher JGC420GS-LL gas engines for this project to produce a total of 5.6MWe of renewable power, which is the equivalent of powering more than 8,500 standard homes.
Jenbacher engines are known to deliver high efficiency and reliability when operating on challenging gases such as landfill and biogas. The design and installation of the landfill gas utilisation system was focused on ensuring maximum noise reduction and minimising the emissions in the local environment.
Gas-to-Energy plant; production of electricity with landfill gas
Type Degassing installation HOFGAS®-C7/1000 + HOFGAS®-Ready 600 Commissioning May 2002 Site Landfill of Iles Les Meldeuses Situation The landfill is being degassed by a plant we supplied in 1998. For the planned extension phase Hofstetter France Sarl was committed to work out a concept for the enhancement of the degassing capacity and the utilisation of the gas. The assessment of the continuous gas production in the future and the commitment of the local electricity production and supply company...
A Workplace-generated Hazardous Substance - Exhaust Gas: Hazardous Substances Case Study
This Case Study has been prepared as one of a series relating to hazardous substances in the workplace. This case study examines use of a machine which generates exhaust gas. Here the Workplace Health and Safety Regulation Part 13: Hazardous Substances does not apply. In this instance, the Advisory Standard for Hazardous Substances applies. Download the full document in pdf format (108 Kb)
Life-Cycle Assessment of the Energy Recovery Solid Waste Incineration
Abstract The LCA (Life-Cycle Assessment) is an instrument of impact analysis measurement which utility is gaining a growing acceptance in new areas of application. In this evaluation, LCA provides a methodological instrument which allows the analysis of the process impact in pre-established conditions of analysis, comparing alternative industrial procedures. The work which we shall attempt is the methodological development of the LCA applied to the incineration with energy recovery of MSW. This development...
Noise Absorbing Recycled Rubber Composite Materials
Abstract Research is focused on evaluation of the possible application of the solid polymer waste, mainly of the crushed recycled rubber bases. This waste is composed mainly from the thermoplastic and thermosetting resins, rubber, paper, textiles, wood and glass. It is possible to obtain highly airborne sound insulation composites suitable for sound absorption barriers around the highways and railroads or for the construction parts of the tunable Helmholtz resonators. It is possible to process the fibrous...
Re-use and Recycling of Household Appliances
Abstract This paper gives an overview of an European Research Project under the Copernicus initiative of the 4th Framework Programme. It deals with the possibilities to reuse materials and functional units of mass consumer products on a high recycling level. During the definition phase the consortium agreed to focus on refrigerators. A software programme was applied (SimaPro4) to define the environmental impacts connected with the material inventory, production and use of the refrigerator. The present day...
Backyard Composting Evaluated in New York City
Diversion data following distribution of bins indicate that home composting probably won’t make a significant dent in New York City’s waste stream, but can more than pay its way and boost recycling awareness. New York City may not normally be associated with yards and gardens, but there are good reasons to study backyard composting’s effect on waste diversion, especially because the impending closure of the city’s last landfill in 2001 means that nearly 12,000 tons/day of residential waste will have to be...
Anaerobic Digestion at Dairy Farms
The need to upgrade dairy waste management practices to overcome pollution problems is leading more farmers to seek solutions with anaerobic digestion technology. Two recent examples of this trend are underway at California sites. The Cal Poly Dairy is located adjacent to the California Polytechnic State University campus in San Luis Obispo. The dairy milks 180 cows with a total population of over 350 animals, including heifers and calves. Most of the herd is housed in freestall barns. About 90 percent of the...
Environmental Effects of Acid Rain
Air Pollution Creates Acid Rain Scientists have discovered that air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels is the major cause of acid rain. Acidic deposition, or acid rain as it is commonly known, occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and oxidants to form various acidic compounds. This mixture forms a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. These compounds then...
Delamination and Separation of Complex, Multi-material, Waste Streams Using Result Technology
Abstract This paper explains a novel solution to delamination, separation and recovery of various multi-material waste streams. It shows how low energy, environmental friendly solutions to the many multi-material recycling challenges facing industry today can be achieved. The need for influencing the industry to facilitate recycling will be reduced with the implementation of advanced separation recycling technologies such as the Result technology. Introduction The Result technology concerns a process and an...
Mercury Emissions From The Disposal of Fluorescent Lamps
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is making available to the public a study containing information relating to its Proposed Rule addressing the management of mercury-containing lamps under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C hazardous waste management system published in the Federal Register on July 27, 1994, 59 FR 39288. The study consists of an electronic model and report that provides an assessment of mercury emissions from the management of mercury-containing lamps under different...
Common Treatment Technologies for Halogenated SVOCs in Soil, Sediment, and Sludge
Common treatment technologies for halogenated SVOCs in soil, sediment, and sludge include biodegradation, dehalogenation, incineration, and excavation with off-site disposal. All types of biodegradation, both in situ or ex situ, can be considered to remediate soils: in situ bioremediation, bioventing, composting, controlled solid phase, or landfarming. Slurry phase biological treatment is also applicable but is less widely used. Treatability studies should be conducted to evaluate design parameters, such as...
Common Treatment Technologies for Radionuclides in Soil, Sediment, and Sludge
Unlike organic contaminants (and similar to metals), radionuclides cannot be destroyed or degraded; therefore, remediation technologies applicable to radionuclides involve separation, concentration/volume reduction, and/or immobilization. The most commonly used treatment technology for radionuclides in soil, sediment, and sludge is solidification/stabilization (S/S). This treatment technology is described briefly below. Solidification processes produce monolithic blocks of waste with high structural integrity....
Containment for Soil, Sediment, and Sludge
Containment treatments are often performed to prevent, or significantly reduce, the migration of contaminants in soils or ground water. Containment is necessary whenever contaminated materials are to be buried or left in place at a site. In general, containment is performed when extensive subsurface contamination at a site precludes excavation and removal of wastes because of potential hazards, unrealistic cost, or lack of adequate treatment technologies. Containment treatments offer quick installation times and...
Ex Situ Thermal Treatment for Soil, Sediment, and Sludge
The main advantage of ex situ treatments is that they generally require shorter time periods, and there is more certainty about the uniformity of treatment because of the ability to screen, homogenize, and continuously mix the soils. Ex situ processes, however, require excavation of soils leading to increased costs and engineering for equipment, possible permitting, and materials handling worker safety issues. Thermal treatments offer quick cleanup times but are typically the most costly treatment group. This...
Comparative Risk Assessment
` Comparative risk assessment provides a systematic way to compare environmental problems that pose different types and degrees of health risk. It combines information on the inherent hazards of pollutants, exposure levels and population characteristics to predict the resulting health effects. Using data from available sources, rapid, inexpensive comparative risk assessments can identify the most significant health problems. Together with consideration of costs, technical feasibility and other factors, the...
Common Treatment Technologies for Nonhalogenated SVOCs in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Leachate
It may be necessary to know other subsurface information to remediate nonhalogenated semivolatile organics in water. Treatability studies may be required to determine the contaminant biodegradability for any biodegradation technologies. Treatability studies are also necessary to ensure that the contaminated ground water can be treated effectively at the design flow. A subsurface geologic characterization would be particularly useful to any isolation or stabilization technologies. Ground water models are also...
Communication to the Council and the European Parliament on a Community Strategy to Combat ...
On 12th March 1997, the European Commission adopted a proposal from the Environment Commissioner Ritt Bjerregaard on a European Union strategy to combat acidification. The strategy will, by 2010, reduce significantly the extent of the areas in the European Union where the tolerance of sensitive ecosystems to acidity is exceeded. Main elements of the strategy include establishment of national emission ceilings for each acid rain pollutant; ratification of the UN protocol on further reductions of sulphur emissions;...
Turning a Liability into an Asset: A Landfill Gas-to-Energy Project Development Handbook
Each person in the United States generates about 4.5 pounds of solid waste per day almost one ton per year. Most of this waste is deposited in municipal solid waste landfills. As this landfilled waste decomposes (a process that may take 30 years or more), it produces landfill gas. Landfill gas contributes to the formation of smog and poses an explosion hazard if uncontrolled. Furthermore, because landfill gas is about 50 percent methane, it is both a potent greenhouse gas and a valuable source of energy. Substanti...
Hazardous Waste Identification Studies
This is a final report of the study on spent solvents under taken as a result of a consent decree between the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The study discusses the wastes associated with the use of the materials as solvents, the toxicity of the wastes, and the management practices for the wastes. The chemicals included in this study are diethylamine, aniline, ethylene oxide, allyl chloride, 1,4-dioxane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and bromoform. In addition, this...
Landfill Off-Gas Collection and Treatment Systems
Purpose This engineering technical letter (ETL) was written to provide guidance for designers to determine appropriate application of Landfill Off-Gas Collection and Treatment Systems, and to properly design and specify these systems. Applicability This ETL applies to all HQUSACE elements, major subordinate commands (MSC) , districts, laboratories, and field operating activities having military or civil works design responsibilities. The engineering and design procedures are applicable to all Corps of Engineers...