Keywords: boron pollution, geothermal wastewater, Kizildere geothermal field, Menderes river, Turkey
Boron pollution due to geothermal wastewater discharge into the Buyuk Menderes river, Turkey
Kizildere, which is the only commercial geothermal power plant in Turkey and located in Buyuk Menderes Graben in south-west Turkey, discharges annually 6 million tonnes of wastewater into the Buyuk Menderes river, creating environmental pollution. Currently, the wastewater, which includes up to 24 mg/l boron, is discharged into the river at a rate of 750–1500 tonnes per hour. The temperature of the wastewater is approximately 1401°C. The water quality of Buyuk Menderes river is very important for the environment and aquatic life. Reinjection seems to be the only possible solution to this environmental problem.