John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Cadmium potentiates toxicity of cypermethrin in zebrafish

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Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Co‐occurrence of pesticides such as synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) and metals in aquatic ecosystems raises concerns over their combined ecological effects. Cypermethrin (CP), one of the top five SPs in use, has been extensively detected in surface water. Cadmium (Cd) has been recognized as one of the most toxic metals and is a common contaminant in the aquatic system. However, little information is available regarding their joint toxicity. In this study, combined toxicity of CP and Cd and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Zebrafish embryos and adults were exposed to the individual contaminant or their binary mixtures. Co‐exposure to CP and Cd produced synergistic effects on the occurrence of crooked body, pericardial edema and non‐inflation of swimbladder. The addition of Cd significantly potentiated CP‐induced spasms and caused more oxidative stress in zebrafish larvae. CP‐mediated induction of transcription levels and catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme was significantly down‐regulated by Cd in both zebrafish larvae and adults. Chemical analytical data showed in vitro elimination of CP by CYP1A1 was inhibited by Cd. The addition of Cd caused an elevation of in vivo CP residue levels in the mixture‐exposed adult zebrafish. These results suggest that the enhanced toxicity of CP in the presence of Cd results from the inhibitory effects of Cd on CYP‐mediated biotransformation of this pesticide. Our findings provide a deeper understanding of the mechanistic basis accounting for the joint toxicity of CP and Cd. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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