This article reviews the role played by carbon and capture (CCS) technologies in order to facilitate the transition to low-carbon emitting technologies in the medium-term. More precisely, we address the following central questions: how will the development of CCS technologies impact energy policies in order to yield to sustainable energy solutions? At what costs will pollution reductions be achieved? And most importantly, which CCS technologies will turn out to offer the most effective and efficient solution to handle the challenge of the increased demand for energy within the context of the climate change? We critically assess the technology readiness levels of various CCS technologies – post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture, amine scrubbing, oxyfuel, integrated gasification combined cycle, calcium looping and chemical looping – based on the best available evidence to date.