Carbon Trading in the European Union: `Calculation` vs `Measurement`
This paper describes the main provisions for Monitoring and Reporting under the European Union’s Emission Trading System (EU ETS). For the largest installations, the ‘Calculation’ approach is based on the measured fuel consumption, fuel carbon content and oxidation factor (completeness of combustion). The latest phase of the EU ETS attempts to put the alternative ‘Measurement’ approach, based on the measured fl ue gas CO2 concentration and volumetric stack fl ow rate, on a more equal footing with this ‘Calculation’. The uncertainty requirements of both routes are described, for different sizes of installation, and comments made regarding the diffi culty of meeting these requirements, for example, the inherent CO2 in the combustion air must be subtracted from the measured fl ue gas concentration.