Case C-320/03 Commission v Austria was an enforcement action whereby the Republic of Austria was found to have failed to fulfil its obligations under European Community law to permit the free movement of goods. Austrian authorities in the Tyrol had introduced a regulation which limited transport in the Inn valley in response to recorded rises in levels of pollutants, most notably nitrogen dioxides (NOx), with a view to improving air quality so as to ensure the protection of human, animal and plant health. The Court of Justice concluded that the Tyrolean measure breached Articles 28 and 29 EC in an action brought by the Commission seeking to enforce Community law on the free movement of goods and the freedom to provide transport services.
Vattenfall`s Cogeneration Power Plant Reuter West - Case Study
The cogeneration power plant “Reuter West” was erected as a base load power plant in the vicinity of the existing “Reuter” plant. The two hard coal fired 300 MW units D and E were commissioned in 1987 and 1989. Today the cogeneration units supplying electricity and thermal energy are operated by Vattenfall Europe GmbH. The heart of each power plant is the boiler where the sun energy captured in form of hard coal will be released and converted into thermal energy. Modern multi stage...
The Chemical Aspect of NOx Scrubbing
With the passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, many chemical and metal industries and utility producers will now be required to further limit the amount of NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) produced. NOx is a precursor to ozone in the atmosphere, and is believed to be a major contributor to acidic deposition (acid rain). Formation of ozone:NOx is produced in a variety of different processes, including combustion equipment, gas turbines, incinerators, kilns and power plants. NOx also is emitted as by product from...
The impact of international shipping on European air quality and climate forcing
Due to its dependence on fossil fuel combustion and the fact that it is one of the least regulated anthropogenic emission sources, emissions from the marine transport sector contribute significantly to air pollution and climate change. The main objective of this report is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature and reports, taking into account expert knowledge, on the maritime transport sector. The report addresses the sector`s impact on air quality and climate forcing in Europe. In order to...
Why measuring the ambient NO2 without conversion?
Nitrogen oxides NOx are pollutants that may have particular impact in terms of greenhouse gases, acidifying air etc ... issuance increased significantly since 1950 with the massive development of transport and industries. It therefore becomes necessary to provide measures always safer these pollutant gases, and to know the reliability of results. Currently, 60% of emissions of NO and NO2 are mostly dominated by traffic emissions. NO is an unregulated pollutant because it is considered much less toxic than its...
`Major Stationary Sources - What’s New, What’s Changing and What to Do About It,` presented at the ...
Clean Air Mercury Rule(CAMR) Session Objectives Background on CAMR Rule NSPS & Cap-and-Trade Program Monitoring and Controlling HgEmissions Pennsylvania’s Proposed Hg Rule Clean Air Rules Clean Air Nonroad Diesel Rule Clean Air Ozone Rules 8-hour ozone Clean Air Fine Particulate Rules 8-hour PM2.5 Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) Market-Based, Cap & Trade Program for SO2and NOx in Eastern U.S.