Keywords: marine waters, pollutant characterisation, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE)
Characterising and identifying toxicants in marine waters: a review of marine toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs)
One impact of human activity is contamination of the world’s oceans with toxic pollutants. Marine toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) technology provides an approach for characterising and identifying the causes of toxicity in aqueous and sediment samples. This review describes the evolution and use of marine TIEs since their initial development approximately fifteen years ago. Currently, 30 marine species are used in TIEs around the world on samples ranging from industrial and municipal effluents to sediment interstitial waters. Primary applications of TIEs have been for environmental regulatory purposes, specifically effluent permitting, but other potential uses include the assessment of contaminated sites and performance of risk assessments. When used with toxicity reduction evaluations (TRE) or other remedial techniques, TIEs can be a cost-effective tool for protecting oceanic resources.