Keywords: emissions modelling, real-world emissions, driving cycles, engine operation, frequency distribution, passenger vehicles, private vehicles, simulation, vehicle emissions, air pollution, engine speed, engine load, CO2 emissions, carbon emissions, carbon dioxide
Characterising emissions from private passenger vehicles using engine operating patterns
A method to simulate emissions factors using frequency distribution plots of engine speed and engine load is proposed. The distribution plots and corresponding emissions factors were developed from speed time series' of real-world driving cycles and physical properties of a range of private passenger vehicles tested at the EMPA. Emissions factors were estimated for a set of simultaneously measured frequency distribution plots and driving cycles using the proposed method and a method developed by De Haan and Keller (2004b) respectively. CO
2was between 16% and 68% higher for the proposed method however there was no significant difference for other emissions.