John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Characteristics of suspended solids affect bifenthrin toxicity to the calanoid copepods, Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi

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Bifenthrin is a pyrethroid pesticide that is highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates. The dissolved concentration is generally thought to be the best predictor of acute toxicity. However, for the filter feeding calanoid copepods, Eurytemora affinis and Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, ingestion of pesticide‐bound particles could prove to be another route of exposure. The present study investigated bifenthrin toxicity to E. affinis and P. forbesi in the presence of suspended solids from municipal wastewater effluent and surface water of the San Francisco Estuary (SFE). Suspended solids mitigated the toxicity of total bifenthrin to E. affinis and P. forbesi but mortality was higher than what would be predicted from dissolved concentrations alone. Our results indicate toxicity and bioavailability of particle associated bifenthrin was significantly correlated with counts of particle sizes at 0.5–2µm. Potential explanations could include direct ingestion of bifenthrin bound particles, changes in food consumption and feeding behavior, and physical contact with small particles. The complex interactions between pesticides and particles of different type and size demonstrate a need for future ecotoxicological studies to investigate the role of particle sizes on aquatic organisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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