John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Chemical analysis of fish bile extracts for monitoring endocrine disrupting chemical exposure in water: Bisphenol A, alkylphenols and norethindrone

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This study determined concentrations of estrogenic bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (4‐tert‐OP), butylphenol (4‐tert‐BP) and progestogenic norethindrone (NET) by LC‐MS/MS in bile extracts from field fish in Xin'an River and market fish in Shanghai, China. Compared to the field fish, EDC concentrations in market fish bile were at relatively high levels with high detectable rates. The average concentrations of BPA, NP, 4‐tert‐OP, 4‐tert‐BP and NET in field fish bile were 30.1, 203, 4.69, 7.84, 0.514 µg/L, respectively; in market fish bile they were 240, 528, 76.5, 12.8 and 5.26 µg/L, respectively; and in the surface water of Xin'an River they were 38.8, 7.91, 1.98, 2.66 and 0.116 ng/L, respectively. The average of total estrogenic activity of river water was 3.32 ng/L estradiol equivalents. High bioconcentration factors (BCF) were discovered for all 5 EDCs (>1000 fold) in field fish bile. Furthermore, we analyzed the BCF value of BPA in fish bile after 30‐day exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA in the laboratory, and revealed that BCFFish bile changed in an inverse concentration‐dependent manner based on the log10‐transformed BPA concentration in water. And strikingly, the data from the field study were well fitted within this trend. The data together suggested that analysis of fish bile extracts could be an efficient method for assessing waterborne EDCs exposure for aquatic biota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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