John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Chemical and biochemical characterization and in vivo safety evaluation of pharmaceuticals in drinking water

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The water constituents that are currently subject to legal control are only a small fraction of the vast number of chemical substances and microorganisms that may occur in both the environment and in water resources. The main objective of this work is to study the health impact resulting from exposure to a mixture of pharmaceuticals that have been detected in tap water at low doses. Analysis of atenolol, caffeine, erythromycin, carbamazepine and their metabolites in blood, urine, feces, fat tissue, liver and kidney after exposure to a mixture of these pharmaceuticals in treated drinking water were performed. The effects of this exposure were assessed in rats by measuring biochemical markers of organs injury or dysfunction. Simultaneously, the selected pharmaceuticals were also quantified in both physiological fluids and organ homogenates by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode and full scan mode). Following exposure of rats to a concentration of a pharmaceutical, which was ten times higher than the concentration known to be present in tap water, trace levels of some pharmaceuticals and their metabolites were detected in biological samples. This exposure did, however, not lead to significant organ injury/ dysfunction. Thus, we report here an experimental model that can be used to characterize the safety profile of pharmaceuticals in treated drinking water using a multiorgan toxicity approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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