Chemical examination of piped water supply of ile-ife in Southwest Nigeria
The combination of unsafe drinking water and inadequate sanitation facilities constitutes one of the major causes of death and disability as a result of water borne diseases, which is often on epidemic scale among the poor in developing countries. Safe, convenient water supply and adequate sanitation is a fundamental component of broad-based economic growth strategies. Lowering mortality and morbidity from water and sanitation-related diseases is a goal in itself; it can also lead to increased productivity among members of the labour force and can reduce the time and energy burden on the household, leading to more time for crop cultivation, child care, and income-generating activities, as well as more regular school attendance (USAID, 1982). Water is essential for growing food; for household uses, including drinking, cooking, and sanitation; as a critical input into industry; for tourism and cultural purposes; and for its role in sustaining the earth’s ecosystems (Mark et at., 2002). Water is one of the most abundant resources in the world. It covers a substantial part of the earth’s surface, filling the oceans, rivers and lakes and exists as vapour in the air and as underground water. Despite the abundance of water, large percentage of the populations in Nigeria and other parts of the world hardly have enough to drink and meet the essential needs as the provision of portable water has, for long, been a major problem, this is associated with poverty, a common stance in most developing parts of the world, (Ashbolt, 2004). The estimated total amount of water on earth is 1360 million Km3 but only 4 million Km3 (or 0.3%) is available for human use as fresh water in rivers, streams, springs and aquifers. The remaining 1356 million Km3 (or 99.7%) is locked in seas and oceans, (Wilson, 1978).