Absolute Systems Inc.

Chemistries of Ozone for Municipal Pool and Spa Water Treatment

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Ozone generated by ultraviolet (UV) radiation is used in North America for treating (mostly residential) spa and pool waters almost exclusively, while only a handful of North American municipal pools and spas are using ozone generated by corona discharge technology in accordance with well–established German teachings. On the other hand, several thousand European municipal swimming pools and spas are using corona discharge-generated ozone today at concentrations which cannot be generated effectively by UV radiation in quantities sufficient to perform simultaneous oxidation and disinfection.

To apply ozone efficaciously and cost–effectively for the treatment of municipal pool and spa waters, an understanding of its chemistry in water is essential, particularly with respect to those human–supplied contaminants and chemical additives encountered. The pertinent chemistries of ozone are discussed in this paper with respect to the major constituents of pools and spas it is likely to encounter. The numerous technological advantages of ozone generated by corona discharge versus UV radiation also are discussed, including the use of ozone to produce hypobromous acid in situ from bromide ion charged to the pool waters.

Several examples of North American municipal swimming pool installations using ozone according to European teachings are described.

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