Chlorination By-Products in Chlorinated Cooling Water of some European Coastal Power Stations

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Chlorination by-products (CBPs) are formed as a result of ti;: cnlorination of power station cooling waterfor anti-foulingpurposes. Their production was studiedat IO coastal power stations in the UK, France and The Netherlands. Three categories of CBPs were determined: trihalomethanes; haloacetonitriles; and halophenols. Bromoform was the CBP most abundantly present in the efluents of all 10 power stations. At a mean chlorine dosage of 0.5-1.5 mgjlitre (as Cl,) the mean bromoform concentration was 16.32 k 2.10 pggllitre. The CBP found in second highest concentrations was dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) with mean concentrations of 1.48 k 0.56 pgllitre. Other CBPs detected were dibromochloromethane, bromodichloromethane and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: concentrations of these three compounds were very low ( < 1 pgllitre). At those sites at which bromoform was measured in the dispersing efluent plume it was found to behave as a conservative parameter ,‘signtficant direct correlation with plume AT). Copyright 0 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

Direct  cooled fossil fuel and nuclear power stations on the coast typically use 30 and 45 m-’ s-’ of seawater per 1000 MWe, respectively. A wide range of fouling organisms are entrained into these cooling water systems and can readily colonise the concrete and metal surfaces that are present. The conditions for growth can be ideal for sessile organisms such as mussels, barnacles and hydroids, with steady flow conditions providing an abundance of food while preventing the equivalent establishment of predatory assemblages. Such growth, termed biofouling, can be massive; it can restrict flow, partially or wholly block condensers and heat exchangers, and permit increased rates of corrosion (Lewis, 1982).

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