Cleaner Production as a base of Sustainable Product Development

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Introduction

There was already standard definition of sustainable development - « it is a coordination process of productive forces, maintenance of satisfaction of necessary requirements of all members of a community under condition of preservation and reconstruction of integrity of environmental natural environment, creation of opportunities for balance between its potential and requirements of the people of all generations ».

As is known, the concept of sustainable development includes three aspects: ecological, economic and social. The underestimation results any of these three components in a skew in equal sides system triangle and infringement in strategy of sustainable development. Really, the reassessment of an economic force with underestimation ecological and social results in infringement of stability of development, for it is impossible to ensure improvement of conditions of life of the following generation, if the improvement of economy will not be accompanied by reduction of technogenic loads per capita and decision of social problems in life of a community. Precisely as there cannot be by end in itself a reduction of technogenic loads per capita, and, means, the decision of ecological problems nor can be end in itself, as in a limit it would result in returning to a primitive community, when with ecology all was in the order.

Thus, only counterbalanced simultaneous complex decision of all three tasks of sustainable development - growth of economy with simultaneous improvement of ecological conditions and decision of social problems - will allow to realise this progressive strategy.

The system analysis shows strong interaction, direct and feedback between mentioned by three factors of sustainable development. In this connection the strongest parameters determining stability of development, are just those, which render influence, at least, on two factors of sustainable development from three.

The increase of manufacture cleanliness renders influence on the economic and ecological characteristics of system and consequently can be regarded as one of the basic factors ensuring sustainable development of system.

Recently, the main conception of nature protection in the Ukraine was the finding and analysis of human impact on surroundings. Today the situation is changing and this defensive concept is replaced by the new one, the main approach of which is the rebuilding of agricultural and industrial complex. It's the conception of Cleaner Production (in Russian more often they used «ecologization»), its basis is the systematic approach.

Significant Ukraine's problem is division economic, social and ecological factors within the framework of systems of acceptance of the decisions at levels of a policy, planning and management, that renders significant influence to realization of the concept of sustainable development of the country and first of all - its industrial and agricultural production. The Ukraine needs in environmentally sustainable economic and social development.

It is necessary for realization of all complex problem of the integrating of economic, biological and human systems to collaborate between the engine-, info-, mathematical modeling-, and eco- communities.

Development of sustainable development strategy is expedient, which had two orientations: ecological safety and preservation of environmental natural environment, i.e. development of sustainable social-ecological strategy with use of effective economic gears of satisfaction of requirements of the person.

The world experience testifies that the main tendencies in maintenance of sustainable industrial development of an industrial region following: development of low- and non-waste technological processes and equipment and salvaging industrial and household waste. It the same ecologization concept of manufacture is.

Thirty years ago American scientist Barry Commoner has formulated four ecological laws. First: all is interconnected. Second: all should somewhere disappear. Third: all has any cost. Fourth: the nature knows better us. The ecological interrelation of all kinds of natural resources requires the system analysis of their condition, complex forecast of use and definition of allowable volumes of use of natural resources.

It would be possible to consider the interaction between nature and man on the basis of a complex systematic approach founded on the apprehension of the fact, that the technical equipment is only a part of the all system.

Hence the tendency to harmonize the relationship of nature with technical equipment, where the operation of industrial complexes is tied not only to the technogenic activity of man and the use of technological objects, but also to the state of natural environment becomes evident. The ideal solution of the problem would be the creation of nature-technical system allowing to achieve high technical indices at favorable ecological condition.

As far as it is frequently impossible to reduce a level of negative influence of manufacture on environment without change of technological processes, the nature saving activity should be directed or on improvement acting, or on creation of predominary new technological processes, directed not only on, to decide helpful problems, but also on protection of an environment.

Thus, system of quantitative valuation of industrial objects' ecologization degree and degree of ecosystems' destruction for acceptance of the justified decisions, directed on ecologization of industrial and agricultural manufacture and rehabilitation of polluted by toxic substances territories, is necessary.

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