Clear Production and Materials Recycling: Competition or Synergy? Based on Experiences in the Colombian Industry
Latin American countries are developing new strategies towards continuous improve-ment of industrial environmental performance, as important international markets change and globalise. Several tools to increase eco-efficiency in industries can be applied, depending on individual problem definition and expectations. This paper focuses on the relation between cleaner production and materials recycling related to the Colombian industry. CP is a preventive approach aiming at reducing environmental impacts (especially waste generation) of production processes. The waste problem is solved at its source. Material recycling as part of Integrated Waste Management is an 'end of pipe' solution, in order to avoid final disposal of waste by reusing or reintegrating it in industrial processes. Aspects to be considered while comparing CP with material recycling are based on the concept of sustainable development and eco-efficiency.