project management unit

Closures of mine a new challenge for Romania


Courtesy of project management unit

The mining activity is one of the oldest activity in Romania, dating from the year 100 B.C. The gold and silver ores represented one of the riches of our country. In time the economic content of metals diminuend, and the ore mines become non profitable. Due to this situation the best option of the State was the closure and ecological rehabilitation of the mines.
The steps for the closure and ecological rehabilitation are the following:

A) Elaboration of the Mine Closure Plan
This plan is based on economic analyses, pre-monitoring activities and community consultation. The pre-monitoring activities are very important for the assessment of the environment impact regarding the mining activities. This represents a base line for the beginning of the design for mining closure and ecological rehabilitation. This allows the owner to establish the base line indicators and also have a future simile of these indicators with regards to the improvement of the environment quality, which in the same time are persuasive for the local communities.
B) Elaboration of the technical project.
C) Selection of the Entrepreneur,
D) Execution of the works
In this period a strong monitoring execution is put in place to give the beneficiary all the information concerning:
Safety of tailing dams and waste dumps, Surface and ground water quality on the site and in surrounding areas, Emission in air and ambient air quality, Soil qualities, Contaminated soil, Seepage and flow rate, Water balance and flow rate of surface and ground waters, Waste ,ARD potential, Waste water treatment with the passive system plant
F) Warranty period (2 years)
In this period the Entrepreneurs have all the responsibilities concerning all the damage of the works and the revegetation.
The monitoring system put in place in the periods of pre-closure and execution is the beneficiary’s responsibility. Also the data collected from this system gives him the possibilities to compare the base line indicators with the monitor’s indicators in this period. This compilation gives the beneficiary the possibilities to inform and convince the local communities regarding the performance of the projects.
G) Post-closure monitoring

After the warranty period a big part of the mining site is transferred to the local authorities not including the waste water treatment plant, tailing dams and waste dumps (the management and monitoring of these remain the owner’s responsibilities).
The monitoring period has the following duration: the tailing and waste facilities for more than 30 years, waste water treatment plant for more than 40 years, surface and ground waters for more than 5 to 10 years. All these responsibilities are established by laws and assure to all the stakeholders involved in this type of project a guarantee concerning its sustainability.
This is the challenge for more than 450 mines which will be closed in Romania in the next 10 years with a financial effort of approximately 400 million of US $.

In the paper proposed for the Mine Closure 2007 I present the Monitoring Program for Baia de Aries Mine. The principles used in this program will be applied in all the mine closure activities in Romania.
Main activity of Buturoasa Baia de Aries - Mine is: Extraction of Au, Ag and Cu ore using underground methods. The mining closure works include the fallowing objectives: mine Buturoasa, the industrial facility Baia de Aries with cyanide plants, the tailings dams Brazesti, Sartas Valley and Cuti Valley.
It is extended on a surface of 13.47 hectares including mine curtilages, waste tips and ancillary activities.
The activity was ceased in 2003
Associated with former mining operations there are waste tips, containing 170.000 cubic meters of waste mine and 3 tailing dams facilities with a containing of 5.0 million m3.
The nearest community is Baia de Aries Town situated at 8,000 m from the mine, having 11,000 habitants. The local water course is River Aries situated at 10 m from mine boundary.
Mine water has a flow rate of 0.2 l/sec, and pH of 5.3, TMS 236 mg/l, Zn 178, 9 mg/l, Mg 2, 2 mg/l, flowing from mine workings

Proposed works
The mine closure and environmental remediation proposals: general site clearance, removing the scrap metal and demolition of 15 buildings and structures, collection of contaminated materials and its disposal in a ecological landfill, decontamination of the site and cyanide plant buildings, filling and sealing of 3 adits, closing of boreholes or mine workings connected with surface, reshaping the slope angles of all mine waste dumps at 1/3, construction of erosion fences and gabion walling to ensure long term stability and erosion control, reshaping and covering with impervious layers of tailing dams, water management and drainage systems, seeding 14 Ha, and planting 1 Ha with local species of trees or shrubs, protection of rehabilitated surfaces and affluent river by guard ditches and drainage systems, construction of adequate waste water treatment facilities to comply with water standard: pH of 6.37, TMS 45 mg/l, Cu 0.12 mg/l, Pb 0.11 mg/l, Zn 0.4 mg/l, CN 0.05 mg/l. (US DOE - Federal Environmental Monitoring Handbook,1997).


2.1. Air monitoring program
2.1.1. Methodology
The main potential sources for air contamination before remediation works are: airborne emissions from the tailings (dust emissions from the dry surface portion of the tailings pond), gas emanations from mine galleries, gas emanations from the tailings dams. (Lemiere, al.,2006a)
Airborne dust should be monitored regarding particle mater, heavy metals and metalloid contents. In the Baia de Aries area, two types of gas emissions can be considered: CO, NO2, SO2, and potentially toxic H2S emissions from the ventilation shafts of the underground mines, NO2, SO2, and potentially toxic H2S emissions from the dry surface portion of the tailings pond. (Monitoring of Calimani and Baia de Aries mines - Inception Report. BRGM Report RC-54799-FR, 84 p, 2006)
A preliminary baseline survey of CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S at ground level should allow assessing gas hazards and their impacts.

2.1.2. Monitored Pollutant
Two types of dust measurement should be included in the routine ambient air monitoring program: particle mater and deposited particulate.
Dust in the vicinity of uncovered tailings damps is visible (particle size > 50 μ,,m) and can be annoying, but it isn’t not a dangerous for health unless it is accompanied by finer sizes particles.
Dismantling of the Incinta PACEA buildings can generates finer particulates. As a consequence and although they should not be part of the routine monitoring program, two size fractions of inhalable particulate, PM10 (less than 10 microns) and PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns), shall be measured as a baseline study because those particles are small enough to be inhaled and they can affect human health.
Monthly medium concentrations of particulate matter (total) and metals content in ambient air within close proximity of the tailings pond shall be measured. The parameters to be measured are Particulate Matter (total), heavy metals and metalloids (Cu, Pb, Ni, As and Cd) and the point preservation are the following: Valea Sartas SPG Heavy metals (monthly) ,Valea Cuti SPG Heavy metals (monthly) ,Valea Brazesti -Heavy metals (monthly) , Plant area-Heavy metals (monthly) and Put 6 - Heavy metals, as shown in Figure 1.

2.2. Water monitoring program
The main aspects of water pollution at Baia de Aries are: the release of heavy metals and metalloids from mine water and from tailings dams seepage in the surface and groundwater. This applies to mined elements (Pb, Cu, Zn) but also to the potentially toxic elements (Cd, As,) accompanying them in the geochemical deposit, the release of cyanide from tailings dams seepage towards the surface and groundwater (at Valea Sartas ,Valea Cutii and Brazesti), plus possibly residual cyanide contamination of soil and groundwater on the former processing plant site and along the route to the tailing dams. (Lemiere, al.,2006a) Water monitoring should cover both surface and groundwater along a section of the Aries valley from Valea Cutii down to Brazasti, including most of the inhabited areas.

2.2.2. Groundwater
Groundwater monitoring should be conducted in a way to ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2000/60/EC, in order to minimize health risks on the use of untreated groundwater in case of direct pollution through recharge by contaminated water, either from local point sources (mine water or tailings dams runoff), either from the Aries river itself (local contamination, or contamination from upstream mines). The groundwater monitoring network will be constituted by: private wells in inhabited areas near the former mine site (Incinta PACEA), and downstream the three tailing dams, piezometers implemented at the base of the tailing dams, for the needs of dam monitoring.

2.2.3. Surface water, mine area and tailings dams areas
Surface water monitoring should be designed as source monitoring in view of source characterization. In the mine area, it should be focused on the tributaries draining most of the mine runoff. Similarly, surface water monitoring around tailings dams should be focused on tailings dam runoff (both dedicated drainage and observed leakage) and on its impact on the subsidiary. In this perspective, it is aimed at fulfilling the requirements of Romanian legislation.

2.2.4. Surface water, Aries River
Surface water monitoring in the valley is designed as transfer monitoring in view of predictive pollution evaluation on targets (groundwater resources, soils and sediments).
In this perspective, it is aimed at fulfilling the requirements of Romanian legislation. This approach is aimed at minimizing the risk of direct pollution of shallow groundwater resources through recharge by contaminated river water.
River monitoring needs to be undertaken either as: a differential monitoring plan, aimed at measuring the added contamination from the Baia de Aries mines between upstream and downstream monitoring stations, a global catchment monitoring plan, including the monitoring of the contributions of the main upstream mines (Rosia Poieni, Abrud, Bucium, e.g.). (Bird, al.2005: Forray, F.L., & Hallbauer, D.K. 2000).
At the current pre-closure monitoring stage, the differential approach is sufficient for the objectives of the study, provided that water and sediments quality reconnaissance is conducted along a stretch of the Aries valley long enough to identify present and past impacts of the mine itself. It is suggested to do this on a 10 to 15 km stretch beginning near the entry point of Valea Cutii runoff.

2.2.5. Methods
Water flow should be measured in the monitoring points every time water is sampled for analysis. For river Aries monitoring the quarterly analyses will be performed. The samples will be collected from downstream and upstream and also from the tributaries of the river.
Discharge measurement should be done elsewhere: continuously, (mining and ore processing area drainage collection channel), regularly downstream the 3 tailings dams, and daily by the laboratory personal, Groundwater level:
The level of water in the mine (Shaft 6, Central shaft, complex ore zone) should be recorded monthly, and every time a sample is collected, in all facilities where groundwater is monitored.

The baseline program (pre-closure monitoring) mean the collecting data on a wider network in the points of the post-closure monitoring network, in order to select the most relevant locations for regular surface and groundwater monitoring. The results of the baseline survey should contribute also to better predict the hydro-chemical evolution of the site, in order to dimension properly the mitigation actions and water treatment facilities. It includes: a survey of river quality upstream and downstream the mine site, a survey of water quality and discharge on the mine site, at or downstream all water runoff points where is observed a significant flow rate (> 1 l/s), and at other selected locations where acid (pH < 6) and saline (EC > 800 μ,,S/cm) water is observed. This is expected to be done on 10 to 20 locations, a survey of water quality at all water outlets (subsidiaries, discharge channels) along the Aries valley between the locations selected for differential monitoring stations . This is expected to be done on 10 to 20 locations,

River monitoring
Two main monitoring points on the river should be defined for differential monitoring: the upstream station and the downstream station (schematic position shown on Figure 2 ). The Baia de Aries gauging station is not suitable as upstream station, because it is located downstream of Valea Cutii discharge point.
Surface water monitoring
Discharge data from the subsidiaries draining the mine site and the 3 tailings dams should be obtained through the implementation of gauging facilities with level recorder and/or staff gauges : at the junction between the derivation and the bottom runoff of Valea Cutii tailings dam, on the channel collecting water from the mining and ore processing facilities area, between the former water processing station and the discharge point on the Aries river, at the junction between the derivation and the bottom runoff of Valea Sartas tailings dam, at the bottom of the new drainage channel of the Valea Brazasti tailings dam, on the main runoff outlets for mine water, including Galeria I and Galeria Concordia, and on the brooks draining the Eastern side of the mine site, on all subsidiaries collecting possibly mine water runoff, from springs, mine waste stockpiles or surface runoff from ore processing facilities.
These permanent and temporary points constitute a surface water monitoring network, and will also be the key water quality monitoring sites.
Groundwater monitoring
A selection of private wells, drinking water supply wells and springs should be visited, sampled and analyzed during the baseline survey. This selection will constitute the basis of the smaller future monitoring network, taking into consideration resource use significance (use for drinking purposes by the community) and of detected metal contamination. (Forray, F. L. 2002)

2.3. Acid drainage assessment
The present program complements the water monitoring program (in which actual pH monitoring is included) by providing elements for the prediction of the long-term evolution of surface water pH. Subsequently, if any toxic metals or metalloids soluble in acid water are detected by the water monitoring program, acid drainage assessment will allow to evaluate the long-term evolution of the transfer of such elements. (Lawrence, R.W. and Wang, Y.,1997)

2.3.1 Acid drainage
Evaluation of the AMD potential of the mine, mine waste and tailings has to be done in order to evaluate the future evolution of potentially toxic metals and metalloids release from these sources. A precise knowledge of this evolution is necessary to set up the requirements on future water processing, and will significantly affect the specification and cost of the water processing facility.

2.3.2. Methodology
Geochemical equilibrium in acid waters have to be outlined first, and for this purpose, the analyses carried out in the Water monitoring program should be complemented by the Environmental Monitoring of Baia de Aries mines- Pre-Closure Monitoring Plan quantification of major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3-, CO32-, Cl-, SO42-). Equilibrium may be calculated from geochemical models (i.e. PHREEQCI).
In order to assess the long-term evolution of water quality, it is necessary to quantify the potential of rocks, ore and waste rocks to generate acidity or neutralize it. This is done using the ABA methodology.
The final ABA test program should be designed from the results of pre-closure monitoring. However, it may be described here in general terms. It comprises, for each representative composite sample: a whole rock major element analysis (Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na and K oxides, and total sulphur), a detail mineralogical analysis based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) results and on mineralogical studies and total rock analyses carried out by the mine operator during operation, specific ABA analyses based on static tests and humidity cell tests, including Net NP, AP, NP, paste pH, acid soluble sulphate and sulphide.
Further testing may be required after the interpretation of these results.
However, most of the potentially acid-generating material is not accessible to ABA testing: the underground mine galleries walls (ore and sulphide-bearing host rocks) constitute the main acid generating source for the mine runoff water. As most of them are now flooded, the only way to assess their acid-generating potential is to investigate the variations of mine water chemistry with depth in the shafts.

Tests: whole rock and mineralogical analyses, acid-base accounting based on static tests and humidity cell tests are a minimum basis to give an evaluation of AMD potential. (US-DOE/OEM/OST,2001) The resulting samples should then be evaluated for acid-neutralizing or acid-generating potential. Combining this with tonnage evaluations allow to estimate whether the acid drainage is likely to last or not.
Mine: The main potential source for AMD is the underground mine, which is no longer accessible for sampling. A very important complement of information may be obtained from mine water geochemistry, and especially chemical variations of mine water with depth. For this purpose, it is proposed to carry out chemical diagraphies (pH, EC, Eh or redox potential, temperature) between level 0 (Galleria 1) and the bottom of accessible shafts, followed by bottom sampling of water at the levels where mine water venues were identified during diagraphies. This task is to be carried out at least 3 times at different seasons during the pre-closure monitoring period, it is thus suggested to schedule it quarterly. (US-DOE/OEM/OST,2001)
Tailings dams: The AMD assessment at each site (Cutii, Sartas and Brazasti) must be done during pre-closure monitoring, as the closure works strategy depends upon the extent of AMD risk.
Piezometers implemented in the tailing dams for safety monitoring purposes may be used in a similar way to access tailing pond groundwater chemistry.

2.4. Soil and vegetation monitoring program
2.4.1. Methodology
Soil and vegetation monitoring at Baia de Aries comprises two strategies depending on location and land use. On the mine site and at tailing dam facilities, these strategies depend upon remediation options. (Lemiere, al.,2006a)
Tailing dam facilities: Pre-closure monitoring of soil and vegetation may bring a limited number of elements in the option choice: vegetation monitoring will provide a quantitative view on the present state of vegetation, baseline soil monitoring on the downstream face of the dam and, more important, immediately downstream the dam, will provide an overview of the effectiveness of the dam for contaminants retention.
A monitoring of vegetation of existing colonized areas as well as new plantations can be implemented. This consists in visual inspection along with a statistical approach. Erosion can be monitored simultaneously. Adverse effects on vegetation as a result of acidity, toxic elements infiltration or sediment deposition can be observed also.
Cultivated areas : Cultivated areas constitute most of the valley bottom outside settlements, while pastures and forests occupy the hill sides and top, including the surfaces over mine galleries.
They might be affected by repeated contaminated water infiltration (runoff or river flooding), and airborne particle deposition in the vicinity of the processing plant and tailings dams. In order to monitor this, soil analysis for potentially toxic elements identified from the mine water should be done.

Tailing dams: Baseline soil monitoring and natural vegetation growth should be done on the downstream face of the dam and immediately downstream the dam, in the same way as for cultivated areas and pastures. Cultivated areas and pastures: Typical locations should be selected along the valley between Valea Cutii and 1 km downstream Valea Brazasti, and sampled at root depth with a hand auger. The parameters to be monitored are the soil contents in potentially toxic substances from the mine (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, SO4,).
Monitoring should be done twice, once at the beginning and once at the end of the pre-closure period.

2.5. Sediments monitoring program
2.5.1. Methodology
Due to the extraction methods and backfill, sediment release to the river by the mine was not observed as a major problem. Sediment transport by the Aries River was observed and may be an environmental issue by itself, but most likely to be related with mines and other activities upstream.
The proposed method for assessing issues is to evaluate the amount of sediment load in surface water, and the pollutant contents in riverbed sediment. Under torrential regime, the grain size of sediments may be highly variable. Most of the pollutant load is usually concentrated in the fine grained fraction of the sediment. Lemiere et al.2006b)
Sediment monitoring for metals and metalloids is to be done through analysis of sieved samples below 63 μ,,m according to Romanian law. The weight fraction of these samples in the bulk sample should be measured in order to obtain actual global concentrations.

Baseline data should be obtained on sediments from the river bed downstream from Valea Cutii until Valea Brazasti, plus 10 km further downstream, from the tributary brooks downstream Valea Cutii and Valea Brazasti dams, and from the tributary brooks draining the mine area. A total of 90 samples should be taken from river sediments, more closely spaced between Valea Cutii until Valea Brazasti, and with a looser spacing downstream Valea Brazasti.
A network of 30 monitoring points is to be selected from the most contaminated locations and from more sensitive locations, such as major villages or game fishing spots. These points should be monitored twice during the monitoring year (during spring and after summer), sampling only from the superficial layer of sediment.

2. 6.Ground and waste heaps stability monitoring program
2.6.1. Methodology
To achieve effectively its goals the monitoring program has to be separated into the following activities: precise mapping of the actual outline of the collapses ,installation of a benchmarks network on the area potentially affected by underground excavation potential collapse and some waste heaps, Yearly Follow up by geodetic methods of the benchmark network for the area of potential collapse of underground excavation and some part of waste heaps (twice yearly for waste heaps) ,Yearly follow-up by observation and photography of the possible active face of the collapses and some area of the waste heaps.( Lemiere et al.2006b)

2.6.2 Monitoring program
The monitoring of ground stability above possible underground cavities and along the border of the actual collapses should be done at least once during the pre-closure period by topography measurements (around 170 monitored points, 10 reference points). The measurement will be completed by an observation and description of the evolution of the collapse. The monitoring of ground stability at waste tips should be done by topography measurements (20 points) carried out twice a year (at least once during the pre-closure period), and limited to a part of shaft n° 6 waste dump.

2.7. Tailings dams stability monitoring program
Tailings dams, which have been built by conventional hydraulic fill methods, normally involve unknown characteristics such as final geometry and properties of the soil structures created by mode of deposition. Safety monitoring program includes: seepage or leakage through the embankment, cracking, slips, movement or deformation of the embankment, erosion of the embankment, piezometric levels in embankments (to this end, knowing the location of the groundwater surface would assist), structural defects or obstruction in infrastructure (outlet pipes, spillway, decant system), borehole groundwater elevations and groundwater quality, under-drain flow rates, obstruction or erosion of diversion drains, characteristics and consolidation behavior of the tailings.
2.7.1. Methodology
The surveillance plan shall be developed based on an analysis of the critical factors, potential failure modes and the indicators of malfunctions. The monitoring plan includes: a description of the purpose for monitoring the individual parameters, assessment criteria for the evaluation of results, an identification of the person/function responsible for the monitoring, data compilation, evaluation and reporting, a schedule for the plan review. The monitoring of dam stability includes a monitoring system for assessing the actual stability of the tailings facilities, including the dam structures.
Routine monitoring to assess the stability of dams may include visual inspections which shall be carried out by an experienced operator/supervisor, following a predetermined ‘checklist’ which focuses on the features and parameters that are likely to lead to problems.

2.7.2. PROPOSED PROGRAM Analysis of baseline information
Valea Ariesului (Brazesti) tailings dam: This disused facility (exploited from 1964 to 1994) is a valley type depository. It is currently in advanced stage of spontaneous revegetation, with grass colonisation, tree populations both on the dam downstream face and on the impoundment surface. The toe of the embankment is located within the Aries River main bed. In that case, erosion by the passage of floodwater across the toe could lead to undercutting and failure of the downstream face. (US-DOE/OEM/OST,2001)
A few piezometers were installed at various stages of construction on the downstream slope of the embankment. Now, these piezometers are clogged and abandoned.
Valea Cutii tailings dam: Valea Cutii is a valley type depository of about 70 meters height (exploited from 1976 to 1997). The dam is composed of a starter dam (rock embankment) and an upper structure built with spigoted tailings according to the upstream method. The dam structure shows spontaneous vegetation (grass and tress) on the dam downstream face, but less advanced on the lake surface and highest stages of construction (last 10 meters). No obvious sign of structural instability is observed.
Fresh water in the tailings impoundment as well as tail water is less than adequately controlled. There is no management of natural runoff of the valley side. The supernatant water is removed by a tower decanting system installed upstream of the tailings beach.
Valea Sartas tailings dam and water processing facility: Valea Sartas tailings dam is a valley site deposit (exploited from 1993 to 2005). The dam is composed of a starter dam (rock embankment 30 m high with a concrete wall) and an upper structure built with spigoted tailings with the upstream method. The supernatant water is removed by a tower decanting system and connected to an outlet conduit, to the treatment plant. The diversion of upstream natural runoff is made from an upstream water dam by a tunnel built in the right flank of the valley. Downstream of the dam, the runoff is canalized by an open concrete channel to the Aries River. The downstream face of the dam is composed of unprotected tailings and is strongly affected by erosion due to the small grain-size of tailings. A set of piezometers were installed at various stages of construction on the downstream slope of the embankment. Technical program
The monitoring usually required during and after the initial stages of rehabilitation includes:
Seepage monitoring
Measuring the seepage water discharge (automatic recording) and solids content.
Conductivity and pH values (monthly manual measurements).
Groundwater monitoring
The position of the groundwater surface shall be monitored in order to confirm that it is safely within the impoundment and clear of the downstream of the downstream slope of the dam, the groundwater surface should be preferentially determined from automatic piezometers. Pore pressure conditions within the impoundment can be used to indicate consolidation, and should show up the effect of the drains, giving a clear indication of their effectiveness. (US-EPA ,2000)
Displacements monitoring
To accurately measure the vertical and horizontal movements of the tailings dam, it is necessary to install a survey control network and/or to restore existing benchmarks or to erect new ones. The downstream slope of the tailings dam should be periodically established by photogrametric surveys to check that the angle of the slope is developing according to remediation design requirements. The displacement monitoring shall also include two inclinometers installed at each dam crest. Inclinometer casing provides access for the inclinometer probe, allowing it to obtain subsurface measurements of tilt. (Joint Research Centre, European Commission,2004)
Routine visual inspection
A monthly visual inspection of each facility shall include: integrity of the devices, chemical and physical measurements, technical observation, indicators of instability (soft zones and boils along the toe, dirty sediment in seepage, increased seepage rates, new areas of seepage, longitudinal and transverse cracking, eye-detectable settlement),areas requiring special attention: decant structures, drain and pressure relief wells, concrete structures, pipes and conduits through dams, rip rap areas, siphons, weirs, trees and animal holes, erosion.
Hydrological measurements (Surface water monitoring) will indicate the effectiveness of the diversion and spillway facilities that have been provided, an annual inspection of galleries and other facilities shall be implemented. (US-EPA ,2000)

2.8. Noise and vibration monitoring program
No noise or vibration monitoring is required during the pre-closure phase. No data need to be collected before closure work.
2.9.Weather monitoring program
2.9.1. Methodology
The following weather data collected near the mine site are necessary for the interpretation of water monitoring data: hourly or daily rainfall records, allowing to understand the relationships between recharge, flow peaks, and pollutant transport (metals, metalloids, sediments),dominant wind direction and speed, ground and air temperature, humidity, solar radiation and evaporation rate data are required if a mass balance model of pollutant transfer is to be set up at the scale of the local catchment.

During pre-closure monitoring, it is thus proposed to collect data from the nearest weather station. Local rainfall monitoring, preferably at the site laboratory in order to allow easier follow-up and maintenance, is recommended, because: it will allow proper interpretation of water monitoring data, and it may be included in monitoring data required for the needs of the safety plan. (SEA Mining Sector Final Report WISUTEC,2006)


The principals used in this monitoring program will be applied by all ore mines that will be closed. Pre-closing monitoring program is the base line for the future comparison regarding the efficiency of the mining closer works and site rehabilitation.
The monitoring program is a way to demonstrate to the local community the sustainability of the mining closure and site rehabilitation.


Bird, G., Brewe, P.A., Macklin, M.G., Serban M., Balteanu D.and Driga B. (2005). Heavy metal contamination in the Aries river catchment, western Romania: Implications for development of the Rosia Montana gold deposit. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 86, pp. 26– 48.
Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj. 31 p. Forray, F.L., & Hallbauer, D.K. (2000) - A study of the pollution of the Aries River (Romania) using capillary electrophoresis as analytical technique. Environmental Geology 39 (12), pp. 1372-1384.
Environmental Monitoring of Baia de Aries mines - Pre-Closure Monitoring Plan 90 BRGM/RC-55380 -FR – draft report(2006)
Forray, F. L. (2002) – Geochemistry of the environment in the areas of mining works from Aries Valley (Apuseni Mountains, Romania). Abridged version of Ph.D. thesis,
JRC (Joint Research Centre, European Commission) (2004) - Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Management of Tailings and Waste-Rock in Mining Activities. 517 p.
Lawrence, R.W. and Wang, Y. (1997), Determination of Neutralization Potential in the Prediction of Acid Rock Drainage, Proc. 4th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage, Vancouver, BC, p449-464.
Lemiere, B., Cazaux, D., Closset, L., Stollsteiner, P., Sutter, M., and Teaca, M. (2006a) - Environmental Monitoring of Calimani and Baia de Aries mines - Inception Report. BRGM Report RC-54799-FR, 84 p.
Lemiere, B., Cazaux, D., Closset, L., Stollsteiner, P., Sutter, M., Teaca, M. and Lazar, C. (2006b) - Environmental Monitoring of Baia de Aries mines - Monitoring Plan. BRGM Report RC-54847-FR, 110 p.
US DOE (1997) - Federal Environmental Monitoring Handbook. RCRA/CERCLA DIVISION Report (EH-413), 184 p.
US-DOE/OEM/OST (U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology) (2001) - Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Programs (ASAPs). Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Crosscutting Program and Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area. Rapport DOE/EM- 0592, 25 p. US-EPA (2000) - Abandoned mine site characterization and cleanup handbook. EPA 910-B-00-001 report, 129 p. Wardell Armstrong et al.
(2001) - SEA Mining Sector Final Report WISUTEC (2006) - Recommendations - Pre-closure monitoring - Use of quantitative predictive models - Negotiation of realistic remediation targets. Internal report for PMU, 8 p.

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