Keywords: clusters, innovation systems, SMEs, biotechnology, France, knowledge flows, R&, D partnerships, strategic alliance, research and development
Clustering, long distance partnerships and the SME: a study of the French biotechnology sector
This paper examines the relationship between clustering and long distance partnering from the perspective of evolutionary economics and the innovation systems literature. Specifically, it brings into this framework business and management approaches and regional economic theories to analyse the preference for colocation in clusters and the extensiveness and degree of complementarity or substitutability between long distance and local partnerships pursued by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the biotechnology sector. The study covers the partnering activity of 25 dedicated biotechnology SMEs located in six clusters on the periphery of France.