The end of the 20th century was marked by the trend toward internationalisation (Dana et al., 1999). To supervise and accompany this phenomenon a World Trade Organization was born in April 1994. Firms delocalise more their activities towards countries where production costs are lower for an increasing productivity. This is often accompanied by outsourcing of innovation activity and of technology often used afterwards by host countries. Answering to all of these requirements, countries had to redefine their economic strategies, and it was in this context that the politics of clusters was born. In this article, we try to explain the way that clusters facilitate outsourcing innovating activity.
Keywords: outsourcing, internationalisation, clusters, globalisation, R&D, transfers of knowledge, competitiveness and productivity