In order to diagnose and fully correlate structural, chemical, and functional features of macromolecules and particles in solution, we propose the integration of spectroscopy and scattering on the same measuring volume and at the same time in a dedicated sample environment with multiple probes. Combined SAXS/UV−vis and SAXS/Raman information are employed to study the radiation damage effect in proteins in solution and the scattering from single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in SDS dispersion, respectively. In the first case, a clear correlation is observed between the time dependence of the radius of gyration (Rg) of the protein determined by SAXS and the turbidity of the protein solution extracted from simultaneous UV−vis measurements. In the second case, the ratio of bundled/isolated carbon nanotubes is obtained unambiguously through proper modeling of the scattering data and cross-validated with the Raman information. The uses of convex constraint analysis (CCA) and twodimensional correlation analyses (2DCOS and 2DHCOS) are introduced to fully explore the combination of data sets from different techniques and to extract unique insights from the sample.
Combined SAXS/UV−vis/Raman as a diagnostic and structure resolving tool in materials and life sciences applications