Keywords: high level radioactive waste, HLW, waste vitrification, vitrified waste product, VWP, immobilisation, overpacking, interim storage, geological repository, liquid waste, spent fuel, nuclear waste, nuclear power, nuclear energy, waste management, waste storage
Commissioning and operation of high level radioactive waste vitrification and storage facilities: the Indian experience
In India, R&D work for management of high-level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) was started along with inception of the Indian Atomic Energy Programme. This culminated in the setting up of the first vitrification facility at the Waste Immobilisation Plant (WIP) at Tarapur. The second vitrification facility has been commissioned at WIP at Trombay and the third such facility is being set up at Kalpakkam. Vitrified waste product (VWP) canisters generated from both Tarapur and Trombay are destined for storage at solid storage surveillance facility (SSSF) at Tarapur, which is the first Indian facility for interim storage vitrified waste product. This paper presents the details of commissioning and operation of these facilities along with work being done on long-term characterisation of vitrified waste product and future vitrification programme.