Comparative analysis on the effectiveness of various filtration methods on the potability of water

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Courtesy of IWA Publishing

This paper comparatively assessed the effectiveness of potable water filtration methods, commonly used in the hinterlands in some Ghanaian communities. Physico-chemical and microbiological analysis were carried out on pond, dam and river water samples, using spectrophotometric, pour plate count and the most probable number (MPN) methods. For the unfiltered water samples the total dissolved solids (TDS) and colour were the only parameters with values within recommended standards. The other parameters, total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, total coliforms and bacterial counts levels were above their standard recommended values. All the filtration methods showed reduction in the levels or better accepted values of the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters. The ceramic filters and the household sand filters showed outstanding results, with all analysed parameters being within the acceptable standards levels. These two methods could be promoted for use to treat untreated drinking water. It is envisaged that a combination of a number of these methods would produce even better results, especially when agents such as alum and activated carbon are included. Follow-up research in this regard is therefore recommended.

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