The choice of the most appropriate indicator to use to compare leakage performance between companies or zones has been the focus of much research and study. The IWA Water Loss Task Force made recommendations (Lambert, 2000) about standardising the terminology and the water balance and then went on to show the short comings of some performance measures. It introduced the concept of the unavoidable level of losses and the Infrastructure Leakage Index. The Water Loss Task Force reviewed the recommendations on key performance indicators in 2007 (Liemberger R, 2007), A recent project in the UK (Watershed, 2011) to update the original Managing Leakage (WRc, 1994) has also reviewed this previous work. This review highlighted a number of new approaches and in particular the Frontier approach. The work reported here has looked at a number of key indicators and applied them to leakage performance within 33 zones ranging from 7000 to 400,000 properties within a large operating company in the UK. The intention of the study was to compare the results from using the different indicators and to investigate whether the Frontier approach had any advantages over other indicators. In addition the use of the Frontier method to benchmark performance and set internal targets at zone level has been investigated.
Manage Your Farm Inventory with Agrivi Software
Every farmer, whether on a small family farm or with large farm production, has an inventory of all his farm materials; crop seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, fuel, harvested crops and other farm items. Whatever the size of his production, he uses those materials on fields and thus has the necessity to keep records of their inventory level. In farm management, inventory plays a key role. It’s important for farmers to know at any moment the exact amount of items. Farmers can achieve that with Agrivi farm...
IoT Technology Increases Municipal Waste Management Efficiency
You’ve probably come across an overflowing trash bin at least once or twice if you live in a major city. That’s because cities generate more waste than other areas of residency. For example, the City of Chicago accounts for nearly 70% of all waste generated in the state of Illinois, which isn’t all that surprising knowing that population density tends to be higher in cities. More people means more garbage and, as nations become more urbanized, that number will only increase. In fact, The World...
Quantification and characterization of greywater from schools
Survey of schools of different education levels (primary, intermediate and secondary) in Kuwait showed an average greywater generation rate of 7.3 L/p/d and varied in the range of 2.9 – 16 L/p/d, reflecting the school level of education (i.e. student age). The highest rates were observed for primary schools while the lowest rates were observed in secondary schools where students are more mature and use the water more wisely. The greywater characteristics indicated waste with low COD and BOD5 values but...
Odour Management System for Sewage Treatment Works - Case Study
Application To provide an Odour Management System (OMS) to comply with specified odour control measures and exceed requirements of: The projects Environmental Assessment Statement The projects planning consent Removal of 99% of gaseous Hydrogen Sulphide Removal of 99% of total Mercaptans Removal of 99% of ammonia gases & vapours. Achieve a boundary level of 5 OUE/m Continue reading the full article
Learning from the MDGs: Improved sanitation and drainage in cities
The water MDG was widely acknowledged as the furthest from delivering against its objective, with criticism largely levelled at Target 7.C, which aimed to `halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation`. Across two issues of the journal, 22 papers tackle sanitation globally, alongside specific case studies and issues within Mongolia, Zimbabwe, Haiti, South Africa, Mozambique, Ghana, China, Zambia, Tanzania, and several cities in India. Cont...