Keywords: carbon dioxide, CO2, carbon capture and storage, CCS: carbon storage, high–level radioactive waste, ultimate disposal facilities, disposal costs, comparative assessment, country case studies, nuclear waste, waste disposal, cost estimation, carbon disposal, Cuba, Lithuania, geological facilities, Switzerland, India, Republic of Korea
Comparison of cost estimates of final disposal facilities for carbon dioxide and high–level radioactive waste
This paper presents new research and new cost calculations for carbon dioxide (CO2) disposal in Cuba and Lithuania, as well as lessons from the comparative assessment of CO2 and high–level Radioactive Waste (RW) disposal costs in several countries. Nuclear power and CO2 Capture and Disposal (CCD) are key greenhouse gas mitigation options, both entailing the long–term, geological disposal of wastes. This paper presents the related economic calculations and draws lessons from their inter–comparison. The paper compares the costs of geological disposal of CO2 and RW in several countries by applying the same unit: US cent/Kilowatt Hour (kWh). CO2 disposal costs were estimated for Lithuania and Cuba, while RW disposal costs were assessed and compared for Lithuania, Switzerland, India and the Republic of Korea. In both cases, costs vary across a wide range in the countries analysed, but the variations are consistent with published estimates for other countries with similar geological and economic conditions.