Keywords: radioactive disposal, CO2, carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage, CCS, carbon storage, monitoring concepts, monitoring methods, monitoring implementation, pre–operational phase, operational phase, post–operational phase, key issues, monitoring parameters, geological facilities, radioactive waste, nuclear waste, waste disposal facilities, safety assessment, disposal safety, waste disposal monitoring, storage safety
Comparison of monitoring programmes of ultimate disposal facilities for radioactive waste and carbon dioxide
Reliable and cost–effective monitoring is an important part of making geological repositories safe, effective, and acceptable for radioactive waste disposal and carbon dioxide (CO2) storage. The major objectives of monitoring should include the evolution of disposal systems compared to the baseline data of the undisturbed site, as well as the validation of the assumptions and results of the safety assessment. Hence, monitoring is performed in support of safety assessment activities concerning geological, hydrogeological, geo–mechanical, and geochemical data. For a monitoring programme, initial information should be available during the site characterisation stage, and should be updated as site–specific data are provided during site construction and operation. Monitoring activities need to be continued for as long as necessary after the closure of the repository or storage site in order to provide public confidence, ascertain the integrity of the repository, and confirm its behaviour as predicted by the safety assessment.