Cone Penetration of Partially Saturated Sands
A laboratory study of cone penetration through partially saturated sand was conducted. A new method for preparing specimens at various degrees of saturation, which utilizes pressure release from previously carbonated water, is described. In closed water systems, where capillary tensions increase effective confining pressures, penetration resistance was significantly higher than in either dry or saturated conditions. Conversely, in closed-gas systems the penetration resistance was slightly lower than at full saturation.