This study examines the characteristics of municipalities owning water utilities that took advantage of incentives provided by the Japanese government to consolidate. We find that economies of scale and government transfers were some of the main factors leading to consolidation of government services. This is expected given the Central Government's efforts to equalize public service levels, and the large cost savings available to municipal level water monopolies.
Innovation results of IAM planning in urban water services
The requirement to provide urban water services continuously while infrastructures are ageing, imposes the need for increasingly sustainable infrastructure asset management (IAM). To achieve and maintain adequate levels of service, the AWARE-P IAM methodology has been applied in collaborative projects launched by the National Civil Engineering Laboratory, in partnership with IST (Technical University of Lisbon), Addition (software company) and several water utilities. The objective of these projects is to support...
Water safety plans: bridges and barriers to implementation in North Carolina
First developed by the World Health Organization, and now used in several countries, water safety plans (WSPs) are a multi-step, preventive process for managing drinking water hazards. While the beneficial impacts of WSPs have been documented in diverse countries, how to successfully implement WSPs in the United States remains a challenge. We examine the willingness and ability of water utility leaders to implement WSPs in the US state of North Carolina. Our findings show that water utilities have more of a...
A critical review of groundwater utilization and management in China's inland water shortage areas
Groundwater, as an important store of freshwater, plays a more critical role in sustaining the ecosystem and enhancing human adaptation to changing climate than surface water. In particular, it can store large volumes of water to naturally buffer the pressure of water shortage against seasonal changes in rainfall. However, groundwater itself is also vulnerable to climate change, showing a great change in hydrologic cycle. Therefore, effective groundwater management has a strategic importance for China's water...
Abha water utility comes out on top with automated control valves
Abha is a small modern city in the fertile mountains of southwestern SAUDI ARABIA. Its cool summers make it a popular destination for tourists, but in general the population hovers around 250,000. The city has a new reservoir on top of a hill that releases water through 6 km of piping down to its main Noaman reservoir. The top tank is 100 meters higher than the lower tank. This makes for a great gravity feed, but gives rise to dangerous pressure differentials and also make thecontrol valveshighly susceptible to...
Utilizing unconventional water sources for industrial reuse
Reclamation and reuse of unconventional wastewater sources for plant raw water, cooling water and process pre-treatment has increased substantially due to increases in the cost of drinking water, recurring water shortages that can impact business operations, and tightening government regulation.Water is required in almost every industrial sector for the processing and manufacture of products. In 2015, industrial raw water consumption within the United States exceeded two million mega-liters per day (500 billion...