Perception of tastes and odors in water is a major interest for water producers and distributors because off-flavors in tap water are associated with health risk by consumers. However, the taste of water is difficult to describe due to the medium itself which is supposed to have no taste. Classical sensory methodologies are difficult to adapt and only get part of the whole perception. This study suggests a new approach to qualify and quantify taste of water using multiple physiological measurements to go back up the perception chain. The four basic tastes (sweet, salty, acid and bitter) were used and diluted in Evian water as a standard, at low concentrations. Autonomic system responses were measured with skin blood flow variations. Results from skin blood flow variations are presented and indicate a high correlation between the duration and amplitude of the response with the self-reported intensity and pleasantness of the stimulus. It also shows that physiological measurements enable the significant discrimination of the different tastes even at detection threshold concentrations. The prediction of the characteristics of a stimulus might be obtained by combining multiple physiological data and sensory responses.
What classifies as water pollution and why is it an issue?
The UN declared 2005-2015 as the International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life’. Yet each day thousands of people still die as a result of contaminated water. This does not even take into account the millions of organisms that perish every year thank to polluted water sources. Water pollution is a huge issue that is made more so by the fact that unfortunately, water is easily solvent. This means that most chemicals are capable of breaking down within it, causing contamination. Water pollution is...
Hard Facts about Hard Water
Have you noticed unwanted mineral buildups on your faucets? Are your clothes dull and scratchy? These are common signs of hard water, an issue affecting many households, in particular those getting their water from a well. How Can Liquid Water Be Hard? Unique geological structures occur around the world. Magnificent features such as the Grand Canyon in Arizona to Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania to Uluru in the Australian outback all shape the terrestrial landscape. Beneath the earth surface, a karst scenery...
Diseases That Biological Water Treatment Can Prevent
Biological water treatment is essential because drinking contaminated water can cause illness. There are many types of contaminants, and the most common are human and animal feces, agricultural run-off, and chemicals. These contain pathogens, which cause water-borne diseases. These pathogens can quickly spread via different methods. Here are some of the most common diseases that can be eliminated by biological drinking water treatment, and classified by the type of organisms that cause them. Parasitic Diseases P...
What too much water can do to your collection systems
In areas with a high water table, or for cities more prone to flooding, your underground infrastructure can become inundated with groundwater and stormwater. And despite stormwater systems being built for this type of collection, there are a number of things that can go wrong for both types of collection systems underground—and above ground—that can lead to contamination or degraded infrastructure. Here are a few problems that could arise, and how to deal with them. Inflow and Infiltration When...
Cut-Off Wall - Abandoned Mine Tailings Pond - Case Study
ProblemAt an abandoned mine in the Yukon Territory, mining for both Gold and Zinc took place until the mid 1950`s, with the processing of the ore taking place on the banks of an adjacent lake. Processing methods resulted in the creation of a large mine tailings pond that had high concentrations of iron, arsenic, zinc and lead. Spring runoff and summer rainfall then infiltrated through the pond resulting in contamination of the lake with heavy metals. The lake is a primary source of drinking water and the prevention...