Containment treatments offer quick installation times and are typically a low to moderate cost treatment group. Unlike ex situ treatment groups, containment does not require excavation of soils, that lead to increased costs from engineering design of equipment, possible permitting, and material handling. However, these treatments require periodical inspections for settlement, ponding of liquids, erosion, and naturally occurring invasion by deep-rooted vegetation. Additionally, ground water monitoring wells, associated with the treatments, need to be periodically sampled and maintained. Even with these long-term requirements containment treatments usually are considerably more economical than excavation and removal of the wastes.
Containment treatments for soil, sediment, and sludge include landfill cap and water harvesting vegetative cover.