John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Continuous UV irradiation increases the adverse effects of photoreactive nanoparticles on the early development of Oryzias latipes

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This study investigated the toxicity of photoreactive nanoparticles (NPs) on the development of Oryzias latipes. Buoyant fish embryos are potentially vulnerable to sunlight‐derived ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. ZnO NPs in surface water easily absorb UV irradiation from transmitted solar light. In this study, O. latipes were exposed to ZnO NPs under irradiation with UV or visible light. ZnO NPs exhibited considerable toxicity toward embryos and sac‐fry following UV irradiation and these toxic effects resulted in increased mortality and abnormalities. UV irradiation induced more serious effects on embryos than did visible light irradiation, and embryonic exposure resulted in irreversible developmental impairment or death of sac‐fry. The adverse effects of ZnO NPs may result from Zn ions released from photoreactive ZnO NPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate photo‐dependent developmental impairment of O. latipes embryos due to exposure to ZnO NPs. Our results demonstrate that the toxicity of photoreactive ZnO NPs could vary under environmentally relevant UV irradiation. These data could serve as a guide for evaluation of the toxicity of photo‐activated NPs in natural surface waters and could be useful for the ecological risk assessment of photoreactive NPs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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