Correlation and prediction of azo dye degradation by nonlinear least-square regression in combined ozonation and ultrasonolysis processes

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Correlative reaction kinetics based on nonlinear least square regression were obtained to predict the degradation of p-aminophenol (PAP), C.I. Reactive Yellow 84 (RY84), C.I. Reactive Blue 19 (RB19), and C.I. Direct Red 23 (DR23) in combined ultrasonolysis and ozonation. Effects of ultrasonolysis and ozonation as individual processes, as well as the synergetic effect for the degradation of azo dyes, were studied by linear and nonlinear regression methods. An initial dye concentration correlation index (φ) for each compound was developed to study the effects of initial concentrations of organics on their reaction rate constants. Reaction rate constants for the azo dyes’ degradation in ozonation and ultrasonolysis alone and their combination were obtained for different operating conditions. Results showed that ultrasonolysis alone was almost ineffective for decolorization and mineralization of azo dyes, but the combination of ozonation and ultrasonolysis had a significant effect on their degradation. Both ozone dose and ultrasonic density had a direct effect on the reaction rate constants, where the impact of ozone was greater with respect to that of the ultrasound. The synergetic effect of combined processes as a function of ozone concentration and ultrasound density varied from 0 to 5, 0 to 4, and 0 to 35 for RY84, RB19, and DR23, respectively.

Keywords: advanced oxidation processes, azo dyes, combined processes, ozonation, synergetic effect, ultrasound

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