Courtyard-level sewer data-enhanced two-dimensional hydraulic model for urban flood hazard assessment in Kunming, China

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This paper describes a study of urban flooding in downtown Kunming, China, simulating a major flood event that occurred in July 2008 using an improved two-dimensional (2D) hydraulic model enhanced with courtyard-level sewer data (CLSD). Although municipal authorities are not responsible for ‘private’ courtyard sewers, available records were specifically added to this model, enhancing its accuracy and usefulness. Geographic information system (GIS) flood maps, a mapping overlay approach and statistical method compared both predicted results and the recorded flood area. A statistical method also provided a measure of the correlation between the extent of the predicted flood areas and recorded flood areas (parameter ‘F’). Results of the improved 2D/CLSD model showed a correlation value for F of 51, 32.6% higher than the basic one-dimensional municipal-level sewer data (1D/MLSD) model; 26.2% higher than an interim version of the model that included a 2D ground surface (2D/MLSD). The 2D/CLSD model predicted flooding in 10 of the 12 courtyards with observed flooding. This was a major improvement over the 1D/MLSD model (three out of 12) and the 2D/MLSD model (five out of 12). Thus a CLSD-enhanced 2D hydraulic model potentially improves accuracy in predicting, mapping and understanding flood risk in urban areas.

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