Keywords: critical infrastructures, electricity infrastructures, risk governance, interdependencies, digital systems, Europe, EPNES, security
Critical infrastructures: the need for international risk governance
Infrastructures (e.g., electric power system, transportation system, information and communication systems) were not designed as integrated systems, as they are operating today. Some infrastructures, e.g., energy, water supply and telecommunications, are so vital and ubiquitous that their incapacity or destruction would affect security and the social welfare of any nation and cascade across borders. They are exposed to multiple threats (terrorist attacks, natural disasters, institutional changes) and their failure might induce risks to other interconnected systems. The paper outlines the urgent need to address such problems with appropriate risk governance and in-time policy analysis at an international level.