Keywords: arms smuggling, criminal syndicates, India, Directorate for Inter-Services Intelligence, Kashmir, Pakistan, South Asia, terrorism, terrorists, D-Company, Dawood Ibrahim, Karachi, Dubai, crime-terror nexus, weapons, armaments, Khalistan Movement, Punjab, underground networks, terrorist attacks, bombs, explosives, 1993 Mumbai blasts, Bombay bombings, China, business, globalisation, Asia-Pacific, multi-disciplinary perspectives
D-company: a study of the crime-terror nexus in South Asia
This article examines India's largest criminal syndicate – Dawood Ibrahim's D-Company. Although D-Company is global, its primary areas of operation are Mumbai, Karachi and Dubai. The crime-terror nexus is explored in D-Company's relationship with Pakistan's inter-services intelligence (ISI). Two notable cases are: (1) ISI's provision of weaponry to the Khalistan Movement in Punjab via underground networks and (2) ISI and D-Company's joint effort that resulted in the 1993 Mumbai Blasts. Chinese arms in South Asia and the potential role of D-Company as a smuggler on behalf of ISI are then discussed. It is a relationship strengthened by Ibrahim's refuge in Pakistan. This article argues that although the sources of weaponry in possession of Indian-Held Kashmir-based militant groups are many, Chinese arms are found to be the most prevalent and that these weapons are provided by Pakistan and smuggled into Indian-Held Kashmir via criminal syndicates like D-Company.