Damage of concrete by sulphate attack and alkali-silica reaction
A holistic approach was adopted to examine concrete durability by taking into account both physical aspects (such as capillary porosity, micro-cracking, macrovoids) and chemical reactions. A ternary representation of the complex damage process in reinforced concrete structures was used by examining the coexistence of the main three factors affecting the concrete durability: a) interconnected porosity; b) exposure to aggressive agents; c) presence of water. This model was adopted to examine two specific examples of the concrete damage dealing with the cement matrix and the embedded aggregates: sulphate attack of the cement matrix and alkali-aggregate reaction.
Keywords: alkali-silica reaction, ASR, corrosion, delayed ettringite formation, DEF, concrete damage, concrete durability, sulphate attack, superplasticisers, capillary porosity, micro-cracking, macrovoids, chemical reactions, water, cement matrix, embedded aggregates, structural engineering