• Data policy restrictions
• Lack of co-ordination
• Lack of standards
• Difficulty (when not impossibility) in the reuse of existing data
This situation therefore aroused different needs like:
• Better information needed to support policies
• Improvement of existing information flows
• Differentiation across regions to be considered
• Revision of approach to reporting and monitoring, moving to concept of sharing of information
Above all, the ongoing general European integration development has created increasing demand for cross-border data services. This need is exemplified by the wide set of European projects and initiatives aimed at improving the data compatibility and developing integrated services. These include individual projects with generic approach like GINIE (GINIE, 2003), domain-specific developments like EuroRoadS (EuroRoadS, 2003) or EULIS (EULIS, 2003), and initiatives with wider scope like the INSPIRE framework.
The DIRECTIVE 2007/2/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 14 March 2007 establishes an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE). The Directive requires Member States to take a set of measures, ranging from the type of data shared between users and application up to the network of services that allow searching for, viewing and accessing these data.
The overall aim of the INSPIRE proposal is to improve the way in which spatial data held by public authorities supports environmental policy, by improving the harmonization of spatial data and the interoperability of spatial services and ensuring greater sharing of the data between public authorities and on-line access by the public. INSPIRE lays down general rules for the establishment of an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe, for the purposes of environmental policies and policies or activities which may have a direct or indirect impact on the environment. The INSPIRE directive therefore includes various proposals, each addressing a given environment or hazard like for example flooding, pesticides, climate changes etc.