Contracts have been developed to govern the relationship between principal and agent. These contracts are necessary for the principal to exert control over the agent assuming that the interest of both parties are at odds and information asymmetries exist. In the cases of private sector involvement in the expansion of water services in small towns in Mozambique we review in this paper we propose a revised approach to these assumptions. We argue that given the conditions present in small towns a different relationship is developed between private operators and asset holder than it would be the case in bigger, longer contracts for bigger urban centers. In this relationship much more information is exchanged and the objectives are shared, often making the conditions of the contract irrelevant for understanding how services have and will develop, giving more space to relational contracts and other informal arrangements.
- IWA Publishing
- (de)Constructing the conditions for private sector involvement ...
Improved water supply forecasts using soil moisture data - Case study
HydraProbe used to improve water supply forecast from 3 SNOTEL sites in Idaho over traditional antecedent conditions using the principle component forecast model Much of the water in the Western United States used for irrigation, municipal supplies and hydro-electric production originates as winter snow pack at higher elevations. Since the early 1900s, the correlation between stream flow and the snow water equivalent (SWE) has been used to forecast the available water for beneficial uses and assess...
Wind-powered water pumping for irrigation and water supply - Case Study
Introduction Access to clean water is of paramount importance for ensuring necessary levels of sanitation and health. According to the World Health Organization over 844 million people lack even a basic drinking-water service, including 159 million people who are dependent on surface water. Globally, at least 2 billion people use a drinking water source contaminated with feces. Contaminated water can transmit diseases such diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid, and polio. By 2025, the WHO estimates half of the...
Water Supply Systems - Case Study
Increasingly, more hydro projects are being integrated into existing conduit and canal systems such as potable water supply systems, waste water treatment plants and even on irrigation canals. Ossberger Hydro has a lot of experience in these types of projects with many features that have been designed specifically to address the characteristics of such projects. Shown below is an example of a project in a water supply system at Marron Creek and an article that goes into detail. Project: Maroon Creek Client:...
What does Vienna’s water supply have to do with the snow depth of the Alps?
The water supply of the city of Vienna stems from high-source water pipelines of the Lower Austrian-Styrian Alps. Here, snow depth measurements play a major role. In the following, we explain, why this is so relevant and how it is monitored… The snow depth is not only important in ski resorts. Experts estimate that up to 50 percent of annual precipitation falls as snow in the Austrian Alps. Apart from individual mountain stations, many measuring devices are located in the valley floor and record precipitati...
What does Vienna’s water supply have to do with the snow depth in the Alps?
Lots of snow, but only a few measuring stations Where most of the snow falls, which is the case in difficult-to-reach mountains, there are exceedingly few measuring stations. Experts estimated that up to 50 percent of the annual precipitation in Austria is expected to be snow in the Austrian Alps. Apart from individual mountain stations, many measuring devices are located in the valley floor to record precipitation every minute. An exact estimate of the precipitation also in the alpine area is not only important...