Mechanically damaged cells release intracellular substances, resulting in the activation of CD4- and CD8-positive T-lymphocytes. The goal of this investigation was to quantify and compare fractions of activated CD4- and CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, based on the quantity of damaged cells in a given blood sample. Blood samples were mechanically stressed by vortexing intensely. Subsequently, different quantities of distressed blood samples were mixed with samples of fresh, whole blood. Afterwards, the extent of CD4- and CD8-positive T-cell activation was examined in the mixture by flow cytometry. Sine-like curves of T-cell activation were observed for both CD4- (T-helper mediated) and CD8- (cytotoxic) T-cell activation. However, the CD8 activation curve was shifted towards a higher damage ratio, determined by its higher peak value. Mechanical cell damage can generate a T-cell-mediated immune reaction. Therefore, quantities of activated CD4- and CD8-positive T-lymphocytes depend on the extent of cellular damage.
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- Dependence of T-lymphocyte activation on the extent of cellular ...
Single-Cell RNA Sequencing in a fast and inexpensive format
Sterlitech Corporation’s uniquetrack-etch polycarbonate membrane filtersare helping MIT Researchers pioneer a faster and less expensive means of identifying key genes turned on in response to infection or diseases, as featured in the February 13 issue of Nature Methods from the Shalek and Love Labs at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Most cells in the human body only express a tiny portion of all genes coded in their DNA. Those genes are copied into messenger RNA, also known as RNA transcripts, which...
Effect of sodium hypochlorite on typical biofilms formed in drinking water distribution systems
Human health and biological safety problems resulting from urban drinking water pipe network biofilms pollution have attracted wide concern. Despite the inclusion of residual chlorine in drinking water distribution systems supplies, the bacterium is a recalcitrant human pathogen capable of forming biofilms on pipe walls and causing health risks. Typical drinking water bacterial biofilms and their response to different concentrations of chlorination was monitored. The results showed that the four bacteria all...
Online Total Bacteria Monitor compared with ATP and flow cytometry - Case Study
Alkaline Phosphatase Enzyme Activity Measurement as a Robust on-line Monitoring Assay for Water Quality Assessment. Micro organisms maintain their growth by producing enzymes in order to provide low molecular weight inorganic compounds. These compounds could be taken up into the cells from high molecular weight organic compounds which cannot be directly utilized by bacteria. Microbial enzymes are, therefore, directly related to the concentrations and ratios of limiting nutrients, and may be sensitive indicators...
Bacteriological water quality changes in parallel pilot distribution systems
In a component of an extensive pilot distribution system (PDS) study, the effects of four different water qualities on biological stability in distributed water were investigated through identical (parallel) single-pass pipe arrangements. Through 24 months of monitoring, a number of key observations were made. Incorporation of a biological treatment step reduced the overall dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss through the PDS by reducing biodegradable DOC (BDOC) within the water prior to distribution. In the...
An improved method for determining microbially available phosphorus in drinking water
Microbially available phosphorus (MAP) is the labile phosphorus that is readily assimilated by microorganisms, which is linearly correlated to bacterial re-growth in drinking water in some regions. The conventional MAP bioassay for drinking water was originally developed by Markku based on the growth potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens P17 (P17). However, the bioassay bears some demerits, such as time-consuming and labor-intensive enumeration. For convenience, an alternative method based on a similar principle...