Keywords: EU deregulation, railroads, future, European Union, Europe, privatisation, USA, United States, UK, United Kingdom, Sweden, performance improvement, railway deregulation
Deregulation of railroads and future development scenarios in Europe: analysis of the privatisation process taken place in the USA, the UK and Sweden
A decade ago, the European Union decided that railways should be privatised and deregulated (effective from 2007 onwards). Due to the recent enlargements of the EU and the risk of failures in the decision-making process, it is important to examine early adopters of deregulation policies. We analyse literature and use second-hand quantitative material to thoroughly review this process concerning three different countries (USA, UK and Sweden). In all three cases, the deregulation process has brought positive performance improvements in the long-term perspective, but in the short to medium term, there are a number of problems and warning examples, especially arising from UK case.