John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Derivation of water quality standards for carbamazepine, metoprolol and metformin and comparison with monitoring data

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Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Environmental quality standards (EQSs) for three pharmaceuticals in surface water were derived: carbamazepine (epilepsy), metoprolol (heart failure) and metformin (diabetes). During the past years, these pharmaceuticals have been detected frequently in Dutch surface waters. The proposed standards are based on ecotoxicity data from national and European authorisation dossiers and additional information obtained from open literature. The methods used are in accordance with the methodology of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and national frameworks for risk limit derivation. Only the exposure route regarding direct ecotoxic effects on ecosystems could be taken into account for the derivation of EQSs. The exposure route of secondary poisoning of fish‐eating animals was not triggered, and not enough data were available or accessible to derive an EQS for the exposure of humans due to consumption of fish. Monitoring data for surface waters worldwide show that the proposed quality standards for carbamazepine may be exceeded. It could be expected that when carbamazepine use increases and/or effluents are diluted less during dry seasons, standards will be exceeded more often. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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