Design and assessment of urban drainage and water reuse systems for the reconstruction of formerly industrial areas: a case in Beijing
The Shougang Group is an industrial steel enterprise occupying 800 ha in Beijing that will cease production by 2010. The area will be converted to a new financial and commercial zone. The rebuilding of the water infrastructure in this area should address water shortages in Beijing and retain the industrial landmark of a large cooling water tank. A design framework and an assessment system with 11 indicators were developed for this purpose. Four reconstruction schemes are presented here. Scheme 1 is a traditional system that completely depends on outside the municipal facility. Schemes 2, 3, and 4 are systems to separately discharge greywater and blackwater. Scheme 4 uses a vacuum system that allows the reclamation of nutrients. Schemes 2 and 4 use wetland-treated greywater to fill the water tank. Scheme 3 reuses greywater for toilets after on-site treatment. Scheme 2 is recommended due to its lower cost, greater environmental benefit, moderate resource reclamation, and higher technical feasibility.