Developing a non-revenue water reduction strategy: planning and implementing the strategy
A companion paper dealt with the tasks required to investigate and assess the components of non-revenue water (NRW). This is a necessary first step in a diagnostic approach to understanding the condition of the network, the way that it is operated, and the constraints acting upon it. This second part deals with the tasks and tools required to address the constraints, and to develop a strategy to reduce NRW which is practicable and achievable, and which can be adapted for any distribution network anywhere in the world. Not all utilities, particularly those in developing countries, have the luxury of a well-developed and efficiently managed network. The paper deals with the tasks required to upgrade the network, and to review and improve the operational policies and practices, before the tools and techniques to reduce NRW can be put in place. The paper discusses each step of the strategy and its development, from upgrading the network by improved infrastructure management and zoning, to the available techniques and equipment for monitoring and detecting real and apparent losses.